# Leofreds Theory of electromagnetic Radiation

Some theories say, that time goes slower, the faster an object moves.
If this is brought to an extreme, time will go infinitely fast for an object which moves infinitely slow and infinitely slow for an object which moves infinitely fast.

v ∙ t' = constant

where t' is a number telling, how time goes for the object.

Objects, which have this property, always move with constant speed relatively to an independent observer.

Electromagnetic radiation always moves and moves with constant speed.

Udkast

## Time

Time always goes, like electromagnetic radiation always moves.

Time can arise and dissapear.

Arising time is instantly spread everywhere.

Distances don't exist for time.

There are different amounts of time.

The larger amount of time, the slower time goes.

t' = 1 / T

where t' is a number telling, how time goes and T is the amount of time.

Time is distributed by electromagnetic radiation.

## Space

Distances are absolute in space.

An electromagnetic radiation always moves.

An electromagnetic radiation contains both time and it spreads space.

Mass doesn't exist for electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation has the properties of mass though.

An electromagnetic radiation has a density.

If an observer changes speed, the density of the electromagnetic radiation changes.
It is like moving in rain - the faster you move, the wetter you get.

Speed and density are two sides of the same matter.
The higher speed, the higher density.

An electromagnetic radiation contains an amount of time.

The density determines the amount of time in the electromagnetic radiation.
The higher density, the larger amount of time.

If the observer changes speed, the amount of time changes proportionally, so the speed of the electromagnetic radiation is always constant.

The frequenzy pictures the amount of time and the density of an electromagnetic radiation.
The higher frequency, the higher density and larger amount of time.

When an electromagnetic radiation moves, it is stretched out depending on the density.
This is seen as wavelengths.

## The Universe

### Distances

Distances are absolute in the universe.

### Time

Electromagnetic radiation causes time in the universe.

Time depends on the density of the electromagnetic radiation measured by the observer.

T = ρ ∙ c

where T is the amount of time for the observer, ρ is the density of the electromagnetic radiation measured by the observer and c is the speed of light.

There are two aspects of time - the own time and the common time.

The time in an electromagnetic radiation is common to all observers, even observers it hasn't reached yet.
The electromagnetic radiation has different density depending on the place and the speed of the observer.
So the common time is different from observer to observer.

Tobs = ρobs ∙ c

where Tobs is the amount of time for an observer, ρobs is the density of the electromagnetic radiation for the observer and c is the speed of light.

When an electromagnetic radiation is captured in a confined space, the density is constant measured by the confined space.
The electromagnetic radiation gets an own time.

The own time doesn't change by other things doings.

Time can't go faster than the own time.

### Mass

Electromagnetic radiation causes mass in the universe.

Mass is electromagnetic radiations captured in a confined space.

Mass is the sum of the densities of the electromagnetic radiations captured in the confined space.

m = Σ ρ

where m is the mass, Σ ρ is the sum of the densities of the electromagnetic radiations captured in the confined space.

T = Σ ρ ∙ c

where T is the amount of time in the mass and c is the speed of light.

m = T / c

m = 1 / ( t' ∙ c )

where t' is how time goes in the mass.

This is inertial mass.
The larger mass, the slower time goes.
This gives resistance to be moved.
The forces work in shorter time.

Mass has an own time.

Town = Σ ρown ∙ c

where Town is the own time, Σ ρown is the sum of the densities of the electromagnetic radiations in the mass measured by the mass and c is the speed of light.

Mass can contain electromagnetic radiations with many frequencies as seen in line spectra.

I don't know, what captures the electromagnetic radiations at the confined space.

### Momentum

Momentum is an amount of time.

p = T

where T is an amount of time.

p = ρ ∙ c

where ρ is a density of an electromagnetic radiation and c is the speed of light.

Momentum for a mass is the amount of time in the mass.

p = Σ ρ ∙ c

where Σ ρ is the sum of the densities of the electromagnetic radiations in the mass.

p = m ∙ c

where m is the mass.

## Reference Frames

The only thing that makes reference frames different is that time goes differently in each reference frame.

There are two perspectives on reference frames.

Reference frames where time goes differently because the electromagnetic radiation is different and reference frames with the same electromagnetic radiation, but where time goes differently because they move relatively to each other.

### Time in Reference Frames

t is how time goes in the reference frame of the observer and ta is how time goes in another reference frame. There is a clock in each reference frame. The two clocks are started at the same time and stopped again at the same time shortly after.

t' = dta / dt

where dta is how time goes in the other reference frame and dt is how time goes in the reference frame of the observer.

The unit is s/s or unitless.

### Mass in Reference Frames

In general :

m = 1 / (t' ∙ c)

where m is the mass, t' is how time goes and c is the speed of light.

m = 1 / (dtr / dt ∙ c)

where m is the mass for the observer, dtr is the time in a common reference frame and dt is the time for the observer.

ma = 1 / (dtr / dta ∙ c)

where ma is the mass in another reference frame, dtr is the time in a common reference frame and dta is the time in the other reference frame.

ma = 1 / (dtr / dta ∙ c ∙ dt / dt)

ma = 1 / (dtr / dt ∙ c ∙ dt / dta)

ma = m ∙ t'

where ma is the mass in the other reference frame, m is the mass for the observer and t' is how time goes in the other reference frame relatively to how time goes for the observer.

### Distances in Reference Frames

In general distances are absolute.

Distances in empty space :

sa = s + v ∙ t

where sa is the distance in another reference frame, s is the distance measured by the observer, v is the speed of the other reference frame measured by the observer and t is the time measured by the observer.

### Speed in Reference Frames

v = ds / dt

where v is the speed measured by the observer, ds is the distance and dt is the time measured by the observer.

va = ds / dta

where va is the speed in another reference frame and dta is the time in the other reference frame.

va = ds / dta ∙ dt / dt

va = ds / dt ∙ dt / dta

va = v / t'

where va is the speed in another reference frame, v is the speed measured by the observer, and t' is how time goes in the other reference frame relatively to how time goes for the observer.

This also means that the speed between two reference frames is different depending on which reference frame the speed is measured.

### Acceleration in Reference Frames

a = dv / dt

where a is the acceleration measured by the observer, dv is the speed measured by the observer and dt is the time measured by the observer.

a = d2s / dt2

where ds is the distance,

aa = dva / dta

where aa is the acceleration in another reference frame, dva is the speed in the other reference frame and dta is the time in the other reference frame.

aa = d2s / dta 2

aa = d2s / dta 2 ∙ dt2 / dt2

aa = d2s / dt2 ∙ dt2 / dta 2

aa = a / t' 2

where aa is the acceleration in another reference frame, a is the acceleration measured by the observer and t' is how time goes in the other reference frame relatively to how time goes for the observer.

### Force in Reference Frames

F = m ∙ a

where F, m and a are measured in the reference frame of the observer.

Fa = ma ∙ aa

where Fa, ma and aa are measured in another reference frame.

Fa = m ∙ t' ∙ a / t' 2

Fa = F / t'

where t' is how time goes in the other reference frame relatively to how time goes for the observer.

### Time in Reference Frames with different Speeds

A projected speed is the speed projected into another reference frame.

vpro = v / t'

where vpro is the projected speed, v is the speed measured by the observer and t' is how time goes in the other reference frame relatively to how time goes for the observer.

A speciel case is the speed of an electromagnetic radiation projected into the reference frame of the electromagnetic radiation.

vpro = c / t'

where vpro is the projected speed, c is the speed of light and t' is how time goes in the reference frame of the electromagnetic radiation relatively to how time goes for the observer.

The projected speed of an electromagnetic radiation is not the speed of light.
An electromagnetic radiation can have all projected speeds depending on the density.

A position moves away from the observer with the speed, v, measured by the observer.
An electromagnetic radiation moves away in the same direction as the position.

The speeds are projected into the reference frame of the electromagnetic radiation :

The electromagnetic radiation has the projected speed, vemr relatively to the observer :

vemr = c / temr'

The position has the projected speed :

vp = v / temr'

The electromagnetic radiation moves with the projected speed, vemr p, relatively to the position :

vemr p = vemr - vp

The electromagnetic radiation moves with the speed, c, relatively to the position too.

vemr p = c / temr p'

(vemr - vp) = c / temr p'

(c / temr' - v / temr') = c / temr p'

temr p' ∙ (1 - v / c) = temr'

temr p' = 1 / (1 - v / c) ∙ temr'

Time changes in the same rate as the wavelength, λ.
This makes good sense because if wavelength and time change in the same rate, the speed of light will be constant in all reference frames.

Comparing different reference frames to a single electromagnetic radiation doesn't make much sence because a single electromagnetic radiation doesn't have a significant influence on the time for an observer.

Circular movement however changes the time to all electromagnetic radiations.

### Mass in Reference Frames with different Speeds

m = T / c

where m is the mass, T is the amount of time and c is the speed of light.

The amount of time in a mass changes if the observer moves.

T = Σ ρrest ∙ c + Σ ρ ∙ v

where Σ ρrest is the sum of the densities in the mass measured by the mass, Σ ρ is the sum of the densities measured by the observer and v is the speed of the mass measured by the observer.

m ∙ c = mrest ∙ c + m ∙ v

where mrest is the rest mass and m is the mass measured by the observer.

m = mrest + m ∙ v / c

this gives, that objects without rest mass always move with the speed of light.
Objects with rest mass may or may not have a velocity relatively to another object.

m = 1 / (1 - v / c) ∙ mrest

### Momentum in Reference Frames with different Speeds

Momentum is the amount of time in the mass.

The amount of time changes if the observer moves.

T = Σ ρrest ∙ c + Σ ρ ∙ v

where T is the amount of time in the mass, Σ ρrest is the sum of the densities in the mass measured by the mass, c is the speed of light, Σ ρ is the sum of the densities measured by the observer and v is the speed of the mass measured by the observer.

p = mrest ∙ c + m ∙ v

where mrest is the rest mass and m is the mass measured by the observer.

### The speciel Theory of Relativity

The Lorentz factor, γ, occurs in the speciel theory of relativity. Both distances and time are multiplied by this factor.

In this theory also occurs a factor.

γ = 1 / (1 - v/c)

Only time is multiplied by this factor.

Length contraction doesn't occur after this theory, but there is a kind of length contraction anyway.
When electromagnetic radiation moves the wavelength is contracted - it is redshifted.
Electromagnetic radiation can have all projected speeds, but if redshift is considered as length contraction, the projected speeds of electromagnetic radiations are also constant.

The Lorentz transformation is derived by making the assumption that speeds of reference frames are the same in all reference frames.
This assumption doesn't hold in this theory.

A consequenze of this theory is that distances are absolute in all reference frames.
This is not the case in the speciel theory of relativity.

My own considerations say that Einsteins light clock requires simultaneity, which is not a property of the speciel theory of relativity.

In some derivations of the Lorentz transformation c2 ∙ t2 is compared with c2 ∙ t' 2 .
After this theory this makes no sense. C is constant only because time changes. The light in the two cases is different. It has different wavelength and frequenzy.

After this theory time is continuous, but it doesn't go in the same rate.
That means, that this theory supports simultaneity, but not synchronicity.

## Gravitation

Gravitation is caused by the electromagnetic radiation in the mass.

There are two kinds of gravitational mass - attractive mass and attracted mass.

Attractive mass.
Electromagnetic radiation contains both magnetic and electric fields.
The strengths of the fields depend on the amount of electromagnetic radiation.
The more electromagnetic radiation, the stronger are the magnetic and electric fields, the larger is the attractive mass.

Bp ~ Bradiation ∙ pattractive

The density of the electromagnetic radiation decreases as the surface increases with the distance from the center of the mass squared.

B ~ Bp / (4 ∙ π ∙ r2)

B ~ Bradiation ∙ pattractive / (4 ∙ π ∙ r2)

Attracted mass.
The Lorentz force depends of the charges of the particles through the magnetic field.
The Lorentz force on the attracted mass depends on the density of the electromagnetic radiation in the mass.

FLorentz ~ B ∙ pattracted

The force on the attracted mass could also depend on charge.
The charge of the attracted mass depends on the amount electromagnetic radiations in the mass.

F ~ B ∙ pattracted

Fgravity ~ Bradiation ∙ pattractive ∙ pattracted / (4 ∙ π ∙ r2)

p = c ∙ m

Fgravity = cg ∙ mattractive ∙ mattracted / r2

where
cg ~ Bradiation ∙ c2 / (4 ∙ π)

Time in a gravitational field could be explained by the properties of electromagnetic radiation in the attractive mass.

All the gravitational fields at a position make time go slower.
The gravitational force points in the direction, where time will go slower if the position moves.

Electromagnetic radiation has the property of gravitational mass, even though it has no mass.

## Notes

### Elements of electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation consists of more elements.

There are electric fields and magnetic fields.
The electric and magnetic fields cause attractive gravitational mass.

The electric and magnetic fields might also cause attracted gravitational mass.

Something in electromagnetic radiation has influence on time.
This element causes inertial mass.

Objects with inertial mass but no gravitational mass might exist - maybe electrons, positrons and neutrinos.
They have the time element, but they don't have the electric or magnetic field element.
They don't follow the paths of gravitational fields.

### Dark Matter

Electromagnetic radiation has the properties of both attractive and attracted gravitational mass and inertial mass, even though it has no mass.

Electromagnetic radiation is under influence of gravitational fields.
Knowing the behavior of the physical world, it is most likely that the gravitational fields also are under influence of electromagnetic radiation.

Dark Matter could be electromagnetic radiation in all its variations.

### The accelerating Expansion of the Universe

The reason for the accelerating expansion of the universe might be because time is deccelerating on earth at the moment.

Rising temperature increases the momentum.
Rising temperature makes time go slower in the heated ares.
Global warming could cause time to go slower on the earth and could be the cause of the accelerating expansion of the universe.
Intuitively this doesn't seems likely though.

If the moon or the sun change their distances to the earth time will accelerate on earth.
Or if a black hole approaches the earth time will deccelerate on the earth.