Jens Henrik Pedersens Theory about Electromagnetic Radiation



Some theories say that time goes slower, the faster an object moves.
If this is brought to an extreme, time will go infinitely fast for an object which moves infinitely slow and infinitely slow for an object which moves infinitely fast.

v ∙ t' = constant

where t' is a number telling how time goes for the object.

Objects, which have this property, always move with constant speed relatively to an independent observer.




Electromagnetic radiation has this property.

Electromagnetic radiation can have all speeds but time changes proportionally so it always moves with the speed of light.
Ultraviolet radiation moves fast but time goes slowly so it moves with the speed of light.
Infrared radiation moves slowly but time goes fast so it moves with the speed of light.

The projected speed is the speed making the time go in a certain way.

p ∙ t' = c

where p is the projected speed of the observer, t' is how time goes for the observer and c is the speed of light.


The solution is already known :

p = m ∙ c


p ∙ 1/m = c

where p is the projected speed, 1/m is how time goes and c is the speed of light.
m is the inertial mass. The larger mass, the slower time goes. This gives resistance (inertia) to be moved because forces work in shorter time.



The special theory of relativity.
The special theory of relativity is derivated with the assumption that the speeds of two reference frames are equal if they measure the speed of the other reference frame.
Both the speed of light and the speeds of the two reference frames are equal in the two reference frames.
This causes that both time and distance are multiplied by the Lorentz factor.
If the Lorentz factor is squarred and put only on the time, the results are approxamately the same but only the speed of light is equal in the two reference frames.
After this theory, if the two reference frames move relatively to each other, they don't measure the same speed when they measure the speed of the other reference frame.


Time in two reference frames with the same electromagnetic radiation but with different speeds


A position moves away from the observer with the speed, v, measured by the observer.
An electromagnetic radiation moves away in the same direction as the position.

The electromagnetic radiation has the projected speed, p, relatively to the observer :

p = c / t'

where t' is how time goes for the observer.

The position has the projected speed :

vp = v / t'


The electromagnetic radiation moves with the projected speed, vemr p, relatively to the position :

vemr p = p - vp


The electromagnetic radiation moves with the speed, c, relatively to the position too.

vemr p = c / tp'


p - vp = c / tp'


c / t' - v / t' = c / tp'


tp' ∙ (1 - v / c) = t'


tp' = 1 / (1 - v / c) ∙ t'

where v is the speed of the position away from the observer measured by the observer with the sign taken into account.


This is classical Doppler effect.
Time changes in the same rate as the wavelength, λ.
This makes good sense because if wavelength and time change in the same rate, the speed of light will be constant in all reference frames.
Time goes slower when the observer moves towards the source of the electromagnetic radiation and faster when he moves away from the source.
This is bad news for space travellers.


Electric- and magnetic fields change with speed.
Length contraction after the special theory of relativity was suggested because electric and magnetic fields change shape and get shorter when they move.
This phenomenon still happens. The electric and magnetic fields in the electromagnetic radiation change with speed but they change with the projevted speed, p.
So the higher projected speed, p, the shorter get the electric- and magnetic fields and the shorter is the wavelength.
And the shorter the wavelength, the higher is the frequency.

f ∙ λ = c

where f is the frequency, λ is the wavelength and c is the speed of light.


After this theory time is continuous but it doesn't go in the same rate.
That means that this theory supports simultaneity but not synchronicity.


Time



Time is a property of electromagnetic radiation but it is the time of the observer which changes.
This leads to the following considerations.

Time can arise and disappear with electromagnetic radiations.
Each electromagnetic radiation contains one unit of time.

The time from an electromagnetic radiation is instantly spread everywhere even places where the electromagnetic radiation hasn't been yet.
The time and the electromagnetic radiation are still connected.

The faster an observer moves relatively to the electromagnetic radiation, the slower time goes for the observer.
So the electromagnetic radiation always moves with the same speed - the speed of light.


Time can depend directly on speed.

p ∙ t' = c

where p is the speed of the observer relative to the electromagnetic radiation, t' is how time goes for the observer and c is the speed of light.


Or the time from an electromagnetic radiation could be spread everywhere and when the observer moves he gets in contact with the time.
Time is distributed in space or maybe time is space.
It is like moving in the rain - the faster one moves, the wetter one gets.
The faster the observer moves, the more time he gets in contact with.

T = p / c

where T is the amount of time the observer gets in contact with, p is the speed of the observer relative to the electromagnetic radiation and c is the speed of light.

t' = 1 / T

where t' is how time goes for the observer.

p ∙ t' = c

where p is the speed of the observer relative to the electromagnetic radiation, t' is how time goes for the observer and c is the speed of light.


Time from an electromagnetic radiation is spread everywhere instantly and through time every single electromagnetic radiation is instantly connected to every single observer. This looks a lot like properties of entanglement.
It is very sophisticated connections. The observer sense the time of every electromagnetic radiation in the universe and the times change if the observer change speed relatively to them.


Time changes with the speed of an electromagnetic radiation so it looks like time is dependent of something in the electromagnetic radiation that changes with speed.
The electric- and magnetic fields and gravitation all change with the speed of an electromagnetic radiation.
Time could be a phenomenon made by electric- and magnetic fields or both.
Electric- and magnetic fields are spread by the speed of light though and not instantly like time.


Common time and own time



There are two aspects of time - the common time and the own time.

The time from an electromagnetic radiation is common to all observers even observers it hasn't reached yet.
The observers have different speeds relative to the electromagnetic radiation - they have different projected speeds.
So the common time is different from observer to observer.

t'obs = c / pobs

where t'obs is how time goes for the observer, pobs is the projected speed of the observer and c is the speed of light.


When an electromagnetic radiation is captured in a confined space, the projected speed relative to the confined space is constant.
The confined space gets an own time.

t'own = c / prest

where t'own is how time goes for the confined space, prest is the projected speed relative to the confined space and c is the speed of light.

The own time doesn't change by other things doings.

Time can't go faster than the own time.


Mass



Electromagnetic radiation causes mass.

Mass is electromagnetic radiations captured in a confined space.

Mass is the sum of the projected speeds of the electromagnetic radiations captured in the confined space.

m = Σ p / c

where m is the mass, Σ p is the sum of the projected speeds of the electromagnetic radiations captured in the confined space and c is the speed of light.

t' = c / Σ p

where t' is how time goes for the mass.

m = 1 / t'


This is inertial mass.
The larger mass, the slower time goes.
This gives resistance to be moved.
The forces work in shorter time.


Mass has an own time.

t'own = c / Σ prest

where t'own is the own time, Σ prest is the sum of the projected speeds of the electromagnetic radiations in the mass measured by the mass and c is the speed of light.


The projected speeds of the elctromagnetic radiations in a mass change if the observer moves.

Σ p = Σ prest + v / t'

where Σ p;rest is the sum of the projected speeds of the electromagnetic radiations in the mass measured by the mass, v is the speed of the mass relative to the observer measured by the observer and t' is how time goes in the mass relatively to how time goes for the observer.

m ∙ c = mrest ∙ c + m ∙ v

where mrest is the rest mass and m is the mass measured by the observer.


m = mrest + m ∙ v / c


this gives that objects without rest mass always move with the speed of light.
Objects with rest mass may or may not have a velocity relative to another object.

m = 1 / (1 - v / c) ∙ mrest



Mass can contain electromagnetic radiations with many frequencies as seen in line spectra.

I don't know what captures the electromagnetic radiations in the confined space.


Momentum



Momentum for an electromagnetic radiation is the projected speed.

p = ppro

where p is the momentum and ppro is the projected speed.

Momentum for a mass is the sum of the projected speeds of the electromagnetic radiations contained in the mass.

p = Σ ppro


The projected speeds in a mass change if the observer moves.

Σ ppro = Σ prest + v / t'

where Σ p;rest is the sum of the projected speeds of the electromagnetic radiations in the mass measured by the mass, v is the speed of the mass relative to the observer measured by the observer and t' is how time goes in the mass relatively to how time goes for the observer.

p = mrest ∙ c + m ∙ v

where mrest is the rest mass and m is the mass measured by the observer.


Energy



dE = F ∙ ds

where E is the energy, F is a force and s is the distance that the force works.

dp = F ∙ dt

where p is the momentum, F is a force and t is the time that the force works.

dE / ds = dp / dt


dE = dp ∙ ds / dt


Electromagnetic radiations always move with the speed of light.

E = p ∙ c = m ∙ c2

where c is the speed of light.


E = h ∙ f

where h is the Planck constant and f is the frequency.

p ∙ c = h ∙ f


f = c / t' ∙ c / h

where t' is how time goes.

f = 1 / t' ∙ c2 / h


f and t' are inversely proportional.
The frequency (1 / f) of an electromagnetic radiation expresses how time goes.



Reference Frames


The only thing that makes reference frames different is that time goes differently in each reference frame.

There are two perspectives on reference frames.

Reference frames where time goes differently because the electromagnetic radiation is different and reference frames with the same electromagnetic radiation but where time goes differently because they move relatively to each other.


Time in Reference Frames



t is how time goes in the reference frame of the observer and ta is how time goes in another reference frame. There is a clock in each reference frame. The two clocks are started at the same time and stopped again at the same time shortly after.

t' = dta / dt

where dta is the time in the other reference frame and dt is the time in the reference frame of the observer.

The unit is s/s or 1 / kg or unitless.


Mass in Reference Frames



m = 1 / (1 - v / c) ∙ mrest

where m is the mass measured by the observer, v is the speed of the mass relative to the observer measured by the observer, c is the speed of light and mrest is the rest mass.

ma = 1 / (1 - va / c) ∙ mrest

where ma is the mass neasured in another refenceframe, va is the speed of the mass relative to the other reference frame measured by the other reference frame.

ma = (1 - v / c) / (1 - va / c) ∙ m



Distances in Reference Frames



In general distances are absolute.

Distances in empty space :

sa = s + v ∙ t

where sa is the distance in another reference frame, s is the distance measured by the observer, v is the speed of the other reference frame measured by the observer and t is the time measured by the observer.


Speed in Reference Frames



v = ds / dt

where v is the speed measured by the observer, ds is the distance and dt is the time measured by the observer.

va = ds / dta

where va is the speed in another reference frame and dta is the time in the other reference frame.

va = ds / dta ∙ dt / dt


va = ds / dt ∙ dt / dta


va = v / t'

where va is the speed in the other reference frame, v is the speed measured by the observer, and t' is how time goes in the other reference frame relatively to how time goes for the observer.

This also means that the speed between two reference frames is different depending on which reference frame the speed is measured.


Acceleration in Reference Frames



a = dv / dt

where a is the acceleration measured by the observer, dv is the speed measured by the observer and dt is the time measured by the observer.

a = d2s / dt2

where ds is the distance,

aa = dva / dta

where aa is the acceleration in another reference frame, dva is the speed in the other reference frame and dta is the time in the other reference frame.

aa = d2s / dta 2


aa = d2s / dta 2 ∙ dt2 / dt2


aa = d2s / dt2 ∙ dt2 / dta 2


aa = a / t' 2

where aa is the acceleration in the other reference frame, a is the acceleration measured by the observer and t' is how time goes in the other reference frame relatively to how time goes for the observer.


Force in Reference Frames


F = m ∙ a

where F, m and a are measured by the observer.

Fa = ma ∙ aa

where Fa, ma and aa are measured in another reference frame.

Fa = m ∙ (1 - v / c) / (1 - va / c) ∙ a / t' 2

where v is the absolute speed of the mass relative to the observer measured by the observer, va is the absolute speed of the mass relative to the other reference frame measured by the other reference frame, t' is how time goes in the other reference frame relatively to how time goes for the observer and c is the speed of light.

Fa = F ∙ (1 - v / c) / (1 - va / c) / t' 2




Thought experiment in the special theory of relativity



There are two reference frames - a station and a moving train.
There are clocks at the station and clocks at the train.
The train moves with the speed, v, measured in the reference frame of the station.
There is a meter stick on the train.
A photon is send out in the reference frame of the station when the middle of the meter stick passes it and the clocks are set to 0 in both reference frames.

This theory assumes that distances are absolute.
So if time changes, speeds change too.
This theory supports simultainity.
A photon is a kind of electromagnetic radiation so this theory assumes that it has a wavelength.


In the reference frame of the station :

When the photon is send out, one end of the meter stick moves towards the light source and the other end moves away.

The photon reaches the first end at the time, t1s, and the place, L1, without red- or blueshift.
The photon reaches the other end at the time, t2s, and the place, L2, without red- or blueshift.

L = c ∙ t

L1 = t1s ∙ c
L2 = t2s ∙ c

L1 = c ∙ t - v ∙ t
L2 = c ∙ t + v ∙ t

L = c ∙ t1s + v ∙ t1s
L = c ∙ t2s - v ∙ t2s

L1 + L2 = c ∙ t - v ∙ t + c ∙ t + v ∙ t
L1 + L2 = 2 ∙ L


t, t1s and t2s are times in the same reference frame.
t1s and t2s are times that happen.
t is the time of the light moving a half length of the meter stick but this is not happening because the train moves.


In the reference frame of the train :

The photon reaches both ends at the same time, tt.
The photon is blueshifted in one end and redshifted in the other.

L = c ∙ tt

c ∙ tt = c ∙ t1s + v ∙ t1s
tt = (1 + v/c) ∙ t1s

tt is the time, the blueshifted light uses to move from the light source to the first end in the reference frame of the train and t1s is the time, the normal light uses to move from the light source to the first end in the reference frame of the station.
This is actually happening. The blueshifted light on the train moves the distance, L, at the time, tt, in the reference frame of the train and the normal light moves the shorter distance, L1, at the time, t1s, in the reference frame of the station.
This theory supports simultainity so the photon is send out in both reference frames simultainiously and it reaches the first end of the stick in both reference frames simultainiously.

c ∙ tt = c ∙ t2s - v ∙ t2s
tt = (1 - v/c) ∙ t2s

tt is the time, the redshifted light uses to move from the light source to the second end of the meter stick in the reference frame of the train and t2s is the time, the normal light uses to move from the light source to the second end in the reference frame of the station.

There are two times because the train has two speeds - one speed moving towards the source and one speed moving away from the source.
So the reference frame of the train has two times - one on the part moving towards the source with blueshifted light and one moving away from the source with redshifted light.
The formulas are the same if the sign of the velocity is considered.

Time in reference frames follows the red- or blueshift as derivated earlier.
And when time follows the wavelength, the speed of light is always constant.

In the other reference frame, the factors are the reciprocal.


The speeds in the reference frame of the train.

L1 = c ∙ tt - vt ∙ tt
L2 = c ∙ tt + vt ∙ tt

where vt is the speed of the light source measured in the reference frame of the train.

L1 = c ∙ t1s = (c - vt) ∙ tt
c ∙ t1s = (c - vt) ∙ t1s ∙ (1 + v/c)
vt = v/(1 + v/c)


L2 = c ∙ t2s = (c + vt) ∙ tt
c ∙ t2s = (c + vt) ∙ t2s ∙ (1 - v/c)
vt ∙ (1 - v/c) = c - c ∙ (1 - v/c)
vt = v/(1 - v/c)


The reference frame of the train has two speeds - one speed towards the source and one speed away from the source.
The formulas are the same if the sign of the velocity is considered.



Gravitation


Not very likely part.

Gravitation is caused by the electromagnetic radiations in the mass.

There are two kinds of gravitational mass - attractive mass and attracted mass.

Attractive mass.
Electromagnetic radiations contain both magnetic and electric fields.
The strengths of the fields depend on the projected speeds of the electromagnetic radiations in the mass.
The higher projected speeds, the more magnetic and electric fields pass through, the larger attractive mass.


Bp ~ Bradiation ∙ pattractive


The electromagnetic radiations are radiated radially out from the mass.
The strengths of the electric and magnetic fields decrease as the electromagnetic radiations dilute with the distance from the center of the mass squared.


B ~ Bp / r2

B ~ Bradiation ∙ pattractive / r2



Attracted mass.
The Lorentz force and the electric force depend on the amount of charges passing through the fields.
The amount of charges depends on the projected speeds of the electromagnetic radiations passing through the fields.
The higher projected speeds, the larger amount of charges, the larger attracted force.
The Lorentz force depends on the speeds of the charges in the magnetic fields so alternatively the attracted mass might depend directly on the projected speeds.


F ~ B ∙ pattracted



Fgravity ~ Bradiation ∙ pattractive ∙ pattracted / r2



p = m ∙ c


Fgravity = G ∙ mattractive ∙ mattracted / r2


where G is a constant.


Electromagnetic radiations have the properties of gravitational mass even though they have no mass.


Gravitation spreads with the speed of light like electric- and magnetic fields.




Notes

Elements of electromagnetic radiation


Electromagnetic radiations consist of more elements.

They have electric and magnetic fields.
The electric and magnetic fields cause attractive gravitational mass.

They cause attracted gravitational mass too.

The time element of electromagnetic radiations causes inertial mass.

The inertial mass and the gravitational masses have different properties but they all depend on the projected speeds of the electromagnetic radiations in the mass so they are equal.

Objects with inertial mass but no gravitational mass might exist.
They have the time element but they don't have the electric or magnetic field element.
They don't follow the paths of gravitational fields.


Dark Matter


Electromagnetic radiations are under influence of gravitational fields.
Knowing the behavior of the physics world, it is most likely that gravitational fields also are under influence of electromagnetic radiations.

Electromagnetic radiations have the properties of attractive gravitational mass, attracted gravitational mass and inertial mass even though they have no mass.

Dark Matter could be electromagnetic radiations in all their variations.


The accelerating Expansion of the Universe


The reason for the accelerating expansion of the universe might be because time is deccelerating on earth at the moment.


Entanglement



Time from an electromagnetic radiation is instantly spread everywhere.
If the time from an electromagnetic radiation somehow changes, this would be observed instantly by all observers even though the observers are separated by long distances.
The same princip could explain entanglement.

The projected speeds are fictive.
The angular momentum in spin in quantum mechanics has similarities.


The observer senses the time from every single electromagnetic radiation even though time goes differently in all of them.
Time goes differently in for example two masses but the observer senses them both.