# Leofreds Theory of electromagnetic Radiation

Some theories say, that time goes slower, the faster an object moves.
If this is brought to an extreme, time will go infinitely fast for an object at rest and infinitely slow for an object, which moves infinitely fast.

v ∙ t' = constant

where t' is a number telling, how the time goes for the object.

Objects, which have this property, always move with constant speed relatively to an independent observer.

Electromagnetic radiation always moves with constant speed.

## The Reference Frame of electromagnetic Radiation

Electromagnetic radiation has a reference frame of its own.

Time is absolute in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation.
Time only goes in one way.

Distances are absolute in the universe of electromagnetic radiation.

There is no mass in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation has the properties of mass though.

Speeds are absolute in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation can have all speeds.

Accelerations are absolute in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation.

Forces are absolute in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation.

In the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation acceleration equals the force causing the acceleration.

a * = F

Electromagnetic radiation always moves and everything else in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation always moves.

### Momentum

Momentum is an amount of electromagnetic radiation.
The faster the electromagnetic radiation moves, the larger amount of electromagnetic radiation, the larger momentum.

It is reasonable to presume that an electromagnetic radiation is distributed uniformly.
This means, that the amount of the electromagnetic radiation only depends on the speed of the electromagnetic radiation.

p = cp ∙ v

where p is an amount of electromagnetic radiation, cp is a constant descriping the distribution of the electromagnetic radiation and v is the speed of the electromagnetic radiation.

Momentum becomes a term for the speed of the electromagnetic radiation in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation.

If units are chosen, so cp equals 1, momentum of an electromagnetic radiation equals the speed of the electromagnetic radiation in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation.

p = v *

where p is the momentum of the electromagnetic radiation and v * is the speed of the electromagnetic radiation in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation.

## The Reference Frames of space

### Distances

Distances are absolute in the reference frames of Space.

### Time

Electromagnetic radiation causes time in the reference frames of space.

Every time electromagnetic radiation hits a position, time goes a little slower at the position.

The larger amount of electromagnetic radiation, the slower time goes at the position.

Electromagnetic radiation can have all speeds, but the faster the electromagnetic radiation moves, the larger amount of electromagnetic radiation hits the position, the slower time goes at the position.

So the speed of the electromagnetic radiation is always constant measured at the position.

If the position moves towards the electromagnetic radiation, the speed and the amount of the electromagnetic radiation increase and time goes slower proportionally.
So the electromagnetic radiation still moves with the speed of light even though the speed, frequenzy and wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation have changed.

If a position moves away from the electromagnetic radiation, time goes faster.
This is bad news for space travellers.

p ∙ t * = c

where p is the amount of electromagnetic radiation hitting the position, t * is a number telling how the time goes at the position and c is the speed of light.

I have no idea what happens in an area with no electromagnetic radiation.
It is the opposit of a black hole.

### Mass

Electromagnetic radiation causes mass in the reference frames of space.

Mass, as we know it, is electromagnetic radiation captured in a confined space.

I don't know, what captures the electromagnetic radiation at the confined space.

Mass is the amount of electromagnetic radiation captured in the confined space.

m = p / c

where m is the mass, p is the amount of electromagnetic radiation contained in the mass and c is the speed of light.

Thus mass and time are inversely proportional.

m = 1 / t *

where t * is how the time goes in the mass.

This is inertial mass.
The larger mass, the slower time goes.
This gives resistance to be moved.
The forces work in shorter time.

Mass can contain electromagnetic radiations with many frequenzies as seen in line spectra.

### Momentum

Momentum always moves.

Momentum is the amount of electromagnetic radiation contained in the mass.

When a mass moves relatively to a position, the speeds and the amount of the electromagnetic radiations in the mass increase.

p = c / tmass * + v / t *

p = mrest ∙ c + v ∙ m

where mrest is the rest mass, v is the speed of the mass relative to the position measured by the position and m is the mass.

A momentum is the same in all reference frames of space and in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation.

### Force

Working forces always move.

Working forces work by changing the speeds of electromagnetic radiations in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation.

### Energy

Energy doesn't make much sense after this theory.

The important thing is, that the working force moves, and not the distance that it moves.

## Reference Frames

The only thing that makes reference frames different is that time goes differently in each reference frame.

There are two perspectives on reference frames.

Reference frames where time goes differently because the electromagnetic radiation is different and reference frames with the same electromagnetic radiation, but where time goes differently because they move relatively to each other.

### Time in Reference Frames

t is the time in the reference frame of the observer and ta is the time in another reference frame. There is a clock in each reference frame. The two clocks are started at the same time and stopped again at the same time shortly after.

t' = dta / dt

where dta is the time in the other reference frame and dt is the time in the reference frame of the observer.

The unit is s/s or unitless.

temr' = dtemr / dt

where dtemr is how time goes in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation and dt is how time goes in the reference frame of the observer.

temr' = cp ∙ t *

and if cp equals 1,
t * = temr'

### Mass in Reference Frames

ma = m ∙ t'

where ma is the mass in another reference frame, m is the mass in the reference frame of the observer and t' is how time goes in the other reference frame relatively to how time goes in the reference frame of the observer.

### Speed in Reference Frames

va = (v - v r ) / t'

where va is the speed in another reference frame, v is the speed measured in the reference frame of the observer, v r is the speed of the other reference frame measured by the observer and t' is how time goes in the other reference relatively to how time goes in the reference frame of the observer.

This also means that the speed between the two reference frames is different depending on which reference frame the speed is measured.

### Acceleration in Reference Frames

aa = (a - a r ) / t' 2

where aa is the acceleration in another reference frame, a is the acceleration measured in the reference frame of the observer, a r is the acceleration of the other reference frame measured in the reference frame of observer and t' is how time goes in the other reference relatively to how time goes in the reference frame of the observer.

### Force in Reference Frames

F = m ∙ a

where F, m and a are measured in the reference frame of the observer.

Fa = ma ∙ aa

where Fa, ma and aa are measured in another reference frame.

Fa = m ∙ t' ∙ a / t' 2

Fa = F / t'

where t' is how time goes in the other reference frame relatively to how time goes in the reference frame of the observer.

### Time in Reference Frames with different Speeds

A moving position moves away from a position at rest with the velocity, v, measured by the position at rest.
An electromagnetic radiation moves away in the same direction as the moving position.

Seen in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation :

The electromagnetic radiation has the speed, vemr, relatively to the position at rest :

vemr = c / temr'

The speed between the positions is :

vm = v / temr'

The electromagnetic radiation moves with the speed, vemr m, relatively to the moving position :

vemr m = vemr - vm

Electromagnetic radiation moves with the speed, c, in the reference frame of the moving position too.

vemr m = c / temr m'

(vemr - vm) = c / temr m'

(c / temr' - v / temr') = c / temr m'

temr m' = 1 / (1 - v / c) ∙ temr'

where v is the moving position's speed in the same direction as the electromagnetic radiation measured by the position at rest with the sign taken into account.

Considering all the electromagnetic radiations at the position the resulting gravitational force points in the direction where time goes slower, if the position moves.

Time changes in the same rate as the wavelength, λ.
This makes good sense because if wavelength and time change in the same rate, the speed of light will be constant in all reference frames.

### Mass in Reference Frames with different Speeds

Mass is the amount of electromagnetic radiation contained in the mass.

m = p / c

A mass moves relatively to a position with the speed, v, measured by the position.

The mass has the momentum :

p = mrest ∙ c + m ∙ v

m ∙ c = mrest ∙ c + m ∙ v

m = mrest + m ∙ v / c

this gives, that objects without rest mass always move with the speed of light.
Objects with rest mass may or may not have a velocity relatively to another object.

m = 1 / ( 1 - v / c) ∙ mrest

where v is the numerical speed of the mass relative to the position measured by the position.

### The speciel Theory of Relativity

The Lorentz factor, γ, occurs in the speciel theory of relativity. Both distances and time are multiplied by this factor.

In this theory also occurs a factor.

γ = 1 / (1 - v/c)

Only time is multiplied by this factor.

Length contraction doesn't occur after this theory, but there is a kind of length contraction anyway.
When electromagnetic radiation moves the wavelength is contracted - it is redshifted.
Electromagnetic radiation can have all speeds in the reference frame of electromagnetic radiation, but if redshift is considered as length contraction, the speed of light is also constant there.

The Lorentz transformation is derived by making the assumption that speeds of reference frames are the same in all reference frames.
This assumption doesn't hold in this theory.

On the other hand a consequenze of this theory is that distances stay the same in all reference frames.
This is not the case in the speciel theory of relativity.

In some derivations of the Lorentz transformation c2 ∙ t2 is compared with c2 ∙ t' 2 .
After this theory this makes no sense. C is constant only because time changes. The light in the two cases is different. It has different wavelength and frequenzy.

After this theory time is continuous, but it doesn't go in the same rate.
That means, that this theory supports simultaneity, but not synchronicity.

## Gravitation

Gravitation is caused by the electromagnetic radiations in the mass.

There are two kinds of gravitational mass - attractive mass and attracted mass.

Attractive mass.
Mass radiates electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation contains both magnetic and electric fields.
The strengths of the fields depend on the amount of electromagnetic radiation.
The more electromagnetic radiation, the stronger are the magnetic and electric fields, the larger is the attractive mass.

Bp ~ Bradiation ∙ pattractive

Electromagnetic radiation is radiated radially out from the mass.
The density of the electromagnetic radiation decreases as the surface increases with the distance from the center of the mass squared.

B ~ Bp / (4 ∙ π ∙ r2)

B ~ Bradiation ∙ pattractive / (4 ∙ π ∙ r2)

Attracted mass.
The Lorentz force depends of the speeds of the particles through the magnetic field.
The Lorentz force on the attracted mass depends on the speeds (momentum) of the electromagnetic radiation in the mass.

FLorentz ~ B ∙ pattracted

The force on the attracted mass could also depend on charge.
The charge of the attracted mass depends on the amount electromagnetic radiations in the mass.

F ~ B ∙ pattracted

Fgravity ~ Bradiation ∙ pattractive ∙ pattracted / (4 ∙ π ∙ r2)

p = c ∙ m

Fgravity = cg ∙ mattractive ∙ mattracted / r2

where
cg ~ Bradiation ∙ c2 / (4 ∙ π)

Time in a gravitational field could be explained by the properties of electromagnetic radiation in the attractive mass.

All the gravitational fields at a position make time go slower.
The gravitational force points in the direction, where time will go slower if the position moves.

Electromagnetic radiation has the property of gravitational mass, even though it has no mass.

## Notes

### Elements of electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation consists of more elements.

There are electric fields and magnetic fields.
The electric and magnetic fields cause attractive gravitational mass.

The electric and magnetic fields might also cause attracted gravitational mass.

Something in electromagnetic radiation has influence on time.
This element causes inertial mass.

Objects with inertial mass but no gravitational mass might exist - maybe electrons, positrons and neutrinos.
They have the time element, but they don't have the electric or magnetic field element.
They don't follow the paths of gravitational fields.

### Dark Matter

Electromagnetic radiation has the properties of both attractive and attracted gravitational mass and inertial mass, even though it has no mass.

Electromagnetic radiation is under influence of gravitational fields.
Knowing the behavior of the physical world, it is most likely that the gravitational fields also are under influence of electromagnetic radiation.

Dark Matter could be electromagnetic radiation in all its variations.

### The accelerating Expansion of the Universe

The reason for the accelerating expansion of the universe might be because time is deccelerating on earth at the moment.

Rising temperature increases the momentum.
Rising temperature makes time go slower in the heated ares.
Global warming could cause time to go slower on the earth and could be the cause of the accelerating expansion of the universe.
Intuitively this doesn't seems likely though.

If the moon or the sun change their distances to the earth time will accelerate on earth.
Or if a black hole approaches the earth time will deccelerate on the earth.