Jens Henrik Pedersens Theory about Global Warming
I don't know anything about global warming other than what I know about the laws of physics as a civil engineer and a mathematical physical highschool student.
What is able to cause global warming?
The radiation from the sun is about 10,000 times greater than global warming (CO2 can only cause global warming by mingling with this).
The core of Earth is more than 6000o C.
If global warming is 0.1o C pr year at present time, the heat from our energy production is about the same amount as global warming.
If global warming is 0.1o C pr year at present time, the power from our electricity generation is about 17 % of global warming.
Radiation from Earth back to space decreases the temperature about 10,000 times global warming.
The heat from all the fossil fuels (measured on the mass amount of the fossil fuels) used until now is about 5 times greater than the total global warming until now.
The use of nuclear power might have unknown side effects.
Melting ice decreases the temperature on Earth with about 3 - 4 times global warming.
Some people believe that their mood has influence on the weather.
Some people feel that there is a connection between some diseases and the weather for example gout and low pressures.
Some psychic people believe that the weather is caused by psychic events.
The old nordic mythology predict that the world will end in Ragnarok.
Ragnarok starts with a many year long ice winter though, so the believers of the old nordic mythology have to wait a little longer.
The Bible predict that the world will end in Apocalypse.
Indians danced rain dance to make it rain.
Can humans change something directly with their minds?
If they can, it might also be easy to find a solution
but I will leave these aspects here.
Actually religious people, musicians, psychologists etc. believe, that words can change things
and the weather is connected to human minds and souls.
Global warming could be because someone is talking.
We were on the way to a colder period, like in the middle of the seventeenth century, before global warming
and global warming could be someone who wants the climate to be a little warmer to compence for the colder period.
Some religious people, musicians, psychologists want to change things by talking.
Some places, there is a hard culture controlling great masses of people by talking.
Some people think, that global warming is dangerous, so they hope and they pray that it will stop.
And talking people try to stop global warming by talking.
So, without knowing anything about it, people unconciously do things to lower the global temperature.
And, without knowing anything about it, a war started in Ukraine.
And everybody want to cut their relations with Russia and so all fossil fuels from Russia to Europe are stopped in a glance.
It is not personal to Russia; they just unconsiously want to stop global warming
and it happens to be Russia who produces most of the fossil fuels to Europe.
Looking at the three regions in Ukraine, the war is concerning, actually Ukraine is worse than Russia
and if the three regions had been in Russia and Ukraine wanted to free them from Russia,
Europe and USA would have supported Ukraine here too.
Europe, Russia and USA have no clou about what is happening;
they are just under influence of a lot of people hoping, praying and talking.
And the corona pandemic could have the same cause too.
Everybody are concerned about corona but a lesser known consequence of the pandemic is,
that the energy production was cut down and lesser amounts of fossil fuels were burned of.
The way, the corona pandemic was handled with large scale close-downs,
actually decreased the energy production and global warming.
Both the corona pandemic and the war in Ukraine could be started because of misinformation.
People just don't know facts about global warming and they worry for no reason.
They don't know, that Earth actually was in the beginning of a colder period
and that global warming actually is good for us.
I could be wrong too though but the knowing and educated people have to consider everything -
I think they miss the real cause of global warming completely and they don't even talk about it or discuss it.
Global warming, the war in Ukraine and the way the corona pandemic was handled were all made by humans.
It is still physical laws that control it.
Alternatively, the whole global warming could be intelligent design by a higher intelligence.
It started global warming because it could see that we were on the way to a colder period.
It could see that the global warming would be too hot so it turned down the heating a bit by making the corona pandemic.
The corona pandemic was not enough so it had to start a war in Ukraine to decrease global warming further.
In this case, the corona pandemic and the war in Ukraine are intelligent design by a higher intelligence
and people obey it without knowing it.
But the higher intelligence do so to protect life on Earth and make life better.
I wonder, if the energy production could be decreased so much, and gas and oil from Russia to Europe could be stopped so quickly
if normal scientists said that we have to stop this use of energy.
It looks like something is protecting Earth and making life better here.
Or it could be a coincidence that the colder period and global warming came at the same time.
It sounds strange but I have had some indications of slight impressions
that there is a relation between changing things by thoughts and talking, and plastic in the oceans.
The plastic change from day to day and that is not unusual
but one day, I saw a TV, and I wondered how it could get there by the sea.
And some days, there were a lot of shoes both from women, men and children,
and the shoe names were spelled wrongly like adisad, nkie etx. - imitation of names is not unusual in Souhteast Asia though.
If they change the weather by thoughts and talking, maybe some of their thoughts and talking end up as plastic too.
It could be their thought and talking about the weather
or it could be some of their not-so-good thoughts like anger, agressive talking and thoughts etc.
If someone is talking, I want to stay out of this.
All this is just loose theories created by looking at things happening; I actually don't know anything.
Today December 21 2022, after ths theory there is absolutely nothing to worry about.
If someone causing the things, I mentioned above, maybe they know something, that I don't know.
It could be the future or something not published.
Or it could be caused by misinformation.
The only thread after this theory, is nuclear power because nuclear power has way more energy than fossil fuels
but even if they use nuclear power as a complete energy source,
they still have more than 5-6 decades to study it and find out that it is not good.
The radiation from the sun has a significant influence on the temperatures on Earth.
Changes in the radiation from the sun could overrule global warming in a glance.
Clouds prevent radiation from returning to space.
In wintertime the temperature is easily 10o C higher during nighttime when cloudy.
Clouds also prevent radiation towards Earth.
In summertime the temperature is easily 10o C lower during daytime when cloudy.
Clouds, CO2 and other greenhouse gases prevent low temperatures on Earth but they also prevent high temperatures.
They act like buffers and equalize the temperatures.
If greenhouse gases both increase the lowest temperatures and decrease the highest temperatures,
it is a very strong indication that greenhouse gases aren't the cause of global warming.
Temperatures collected over many years show that both the lowest and the highest temperatures increase following global warming.
So make some experiments and tests to show
if greenhouse gases both increase the lowest temperatures and decrease the highest temperatures.
If this is the case, greenhouse gases aren't the cause of global warming, and if it isn't the case,
greenhouse gases are likely the cause of global warming.
Looking at the moon and planets actually indicates that greenhouse gases both increase the lowest temperatures
and decrease the highest temperatures.
Looking at the nearest planets is a big scale experiment with greenhouse gasses.
The temperature on Earth varies between -90o C and 57o C.
The surface pressure is about 101 hPa.
The composition of the atmosphere is about 78 % N and 21 % O2.
The distance to the sun is about 150 million km.
The temperature on the moon varies between -170o C and 125o C.
There are no atmosphere, no pressure and no composition.
The distance to the sun is about 150 million km.
The temperature on Mars varies between -143o C and 35o C.
The surface pressure is about 0,6 hPa (about 0.6 % of the pressure on Earth).
The composition of the atmosphere is about 96 % CO2.
The distance to the sun is about 207 million km.
The temperature on Venus is constant 462o C.
The surface pressure is constant 9.2 MPa (about 90 times the pressure on Earth).
The composition of the atmosphere is about 96 % CO2.
The distance to the sun is about 108 million km.
The temperature on the Mercury varies between -173o C and 427o C.
The surface pressure is less than 0.5 nPa (very, very small).
The distance to the sun varies between 46 - 70 million km.
Jupiter consists of gas.
The temperature and the pressure change with the distance from the center of the planet.
The temperature is over 24,000o C at the core (the surface of the sun is about 6,000o C).
The temperature is about 150o C at a pressure of 2.3 MPa.
The temperature is about 40o C at a pressure of 1 MPa (10 times the pressure on Earth).
The temperature is about -110o C at a pressure of 100 hPa (same as the pressure on Earth).
The temperature is about -160o C at a pressure of 10 hPa (10 % of the pressure on Earth).
In the upper layers of the atmosphere, the temperatures start to rise again.
The temperature can be more than 700o C in the upper layers of the atmosphere.
The composition of the atmosphere is about 90 % H2 and 10 % He.
The distance to the sun is about 780 million km.
Looking at the planets confirms that greenhouse gases equalize the temperatures.
When the atmosphere is saturated with greenhouse gases, the temperatures are completely equalized day and night (constant).
There seems to be a relation between the concentration of greenhouse gases and the pressure.
The concentration of greenhouse gases and the pressure increase the closer to the planets, maybe due to gravity.
The temperatures seem to rise when the pressure and / or the concentration of greenhouse gases increase.
The state of gases also says that there is a relation between temperature, pressure and the concentration of a gas.
The proportion of CO2 on Mars is 96% but the pressure is low and the concentration of greenhouse gases is small.
The temperatures follow the pressure and the concentration of greenhouse gases and not the proportion of CO2.
CO2 on Earth has only changed the pressure and the concentration of greenhouse gases slightly (from 280 ppm to 410 ppm).
Global warming on Earth is proportional with CO2 and not the pressure and the concentration of greenhouse gases,
which determine the temperature.
This indicates that CO2 isn't the cause of global warming but something proportional with CO2 is.
Venus rotates very slowly; one day last 243 Earth days.
Even though the dark side of Venus is without sunlight for over 100 days, the temperature is still the same as the sunny side of the planet.
The radiation from the sun doesn't mean anything.
CO2 and prevented reflection and re-emission of radiation back to space can't be the cause of the high temperatures on Venus.
The highest temperatures are at the surface and they falls with the distance from it.
The temperatures match the same pattern as the temperatures close to the core on Jupiter.
And the surface of Venus is extremely volcanic.
This could indicate that the high temperatures on Venus aren't caused by CO2
but heat from the core and the heat just isn't able to leave the planet.
There have been other era's on Earth with warmer temperatures.
High levels of CO2 coinside with these warmer era's.
But the reasons for these high levels of CO2 were high vulcanic activity and this could very likely cause global warming too.
At temperatures over 100o C, water turns into steam.
If all the oceans on Earth turn into steam this would have a significant influence on the climate.
The temperature has risen 1,1o C because CO2 has risen from 280 ppm to 410 ppm.
This doesn't match the content of CO2 of the earlier ages at all
where the content of CO2 has been over 5000 ppm.
All these observations indicate that CO2 itself isn't the cause of global warming
but something proportional with CO2 is.
Many things are more or less proportional with global warming:
Worlds population, human produced energy, human made electricity,
CO2, heat from burning fossil fuels, nuclear power, used biofuels,
the number of people in love,
the number of songs about rainy or sunny days caused by the singers mood, just to mention a few.
The radiation from the sun has a significant influence on the temperatures on Earth.
Changes in the radiation from the sun could overrule global warming anytime.
Some areas experience cold records despite global warming is significant.
This could indicate that the radiation from the sun actually is decreasing at the moment.
It could also be natural statistical fluctuations.
It has given a blurred picture of the temperatures on Earth the last decades.
The core of Earth has about the same temperature as the surface of the sun.
Vulcanoes, earthquakes and plate tectonics have a significant influence on the temperatures on the surface of Earth.
Changes in the heat from the core could also overrule global warming anytime.
Both changes in the radiation from the sun and heat from the core could easily overrule global warming
and cause ice ages and warmer periods.
Global warming is proportional to CO2 though and none of these two are
so global warming is most likely caused by humans.
Looking for something proportional with CO2 that could actually cause global warming,
nuclear power and the heat from our energy production come into mind.
Animal production only produces CO2 and has no influence on global warming.
Nuclear power is messing with the basic components of matter and could maybe have some unknown consequences.
Unknown means that they are not known and I can't write anything about them.
For example we still don't know exactly what entanglement is and yet we let atoms transform to huge amounts of energy.
Waste energy also heats up the atmosphere and I don't know how much waste energy nuclear power produces.
Our energy production heats up the atmosphere with about 5 times global warming.
When I was a child, I grew up on a farm.
When pigs and chickens got offspring, the offspring was put under a heating lamp to keep them warm.
The heat from those lamps could keep the close surroundings warm.
Now, when I fly at night, I can see the bright lights from the cities, we pass.
All these lights and the energy from the cities must also make a certain amount of heat - urban heat islands.
Our energy production is less than 0.1 % the energy from the sun though and the energy from the sun disappears again every day.
The only way the heat from our energy production could cause global warming is if it is accumulated.
Concerning global warming there are different kinds of heat.
The two major kinds of heat are thermal radiation and combustion.
The heat from the sun is radiation and the heat from burning fossil fuels is combustion.
The two kinds of heat have different properties.
Radiation can for example pass though areas without internal energy without changing.
Combustion changes the kinetic energy of the molecules and can only exist in an atmosphere.
Thermal radiation is a kind of electromagnetic radiation.
When the source stops and the radiation leaves, the temperature drops again.
Combustion is internal energy.
It is related to kinetic energy in molecules.
When the energy source stops, the internal energy stays in the system afterwards.
Radiation can leave into empty space.
Internal energy is kinetic energy of molecules and can only exist in an atmosphere.
The molecules have mass and the mass is attracted to Earth by gravity.
Internal energy can't leave Earth unless it changes to thermal radiation first
but it can disappear again in other ways for example by melting ice (changing of phase of matter).
The distinction between thermal radiation and other kinds of heat is blurred.
If a metal solid for example is warmed up, it first exchanges internal energy with the surroundings.
When it is very hot, it starts to glow and exchanges energy as radiation.
There is a possibility that the heat from our energy production can't leave Earth and is accumulated and
thus causes global warming even though it is only a fraction of the radiation from the sun.
If this is the case, nuclear power, biofuels and burning wood also cause global warming.
They are all proportional with CO2.
Comparing the amount of CO2 with global warming,
it looks like global warming increases slightly more than the amount of CO2.
This could indicate that nuclear power and biofuels contribute to global warming too.
If the temperature on Venus is caused by heat from the core, it is internal energy too and it
can't leave Venus like the internal energy can't leave Earth.
The clever people should investigate the mechanisms that transform internal energy into radiation more closely
because if this doesn't happen, the heat from our energy production can't leave Earth and is the cause of global warming.
It could also be a mean to remove global warming if we could turn global warming into radiation so it can leave through space.
Earth might function like a special thermos with empty space around to keep the internal energy
but without a metallic cylinder to keep the radiation.
It looks like Earth actually is getting a little colder from nature but global warming overrules this
and increases the temperature.
We talk about how global warming causes natural disasters like floods, hurricanes, droughts
but maybe it also has prevented some blizzards and ice winters.
Ice cools the temperature.
Ice uses energy to melt and ice lowers the temperature.
There is way more ice on Earth than our energy consumption is able to melt.
We have used about 36 % of all fossil fuels on Earth (1-1-2020) measured on energy.
It will take under 0.8 % of all the ice on Earth to cover up for all fossil fuels both in the past and in the future.
Antarctic contains 25-30 million km3 ice (90 % of all the ice on Earth) and covers an area of 14 million km2.
Antarctic had a small increase of sea-ice until 2013.
The ice cap of Antarctic has a small decrease at the borderline and a small increase in the middle.
Totally it has lost about 5,000 km3 or about 0.02 %.
The ice cap on Greenland contains 2,5-2,9 million km3 and covers an area of about 1.7 million km2.
The ice cap on Greenland has lost about 6,000 km3 ice or about 0.2 %.
The sea ice in Arctic changes during the seasons.
In winter time it is about double size compared to summer.
The permanent ice is about 3-4 m thick while the 1 year ice is about 1 m.
The smallest summer area is about 3.5 million km2 which is about 14,000 km3 ice.
The largest winter area was about 12,000 km2 in 2010 which is about 22,500 km3 ice.
Thus maybe 6-7,000 km3 melts every year during the summer and comes back during the winter.
This is about 25-30 % of the total amout of ice melted by humans through history so far.
The sea ice has decreased with about 3 million km2 which is about 3,000 km3 ice or 13-22 % depending on the season.
The sea ice on Arctic contains about 0.1 % of the total amount of ice on Earth but it is here the ice melts first.
This is unfortunate because it is also here the melting has the greatest consequences for, for example, wildlife.
The amount of ice on mountain tops and their glaciers is about 1 % of the total amount of ice on Earth.
The melting of ice here is significant too and this is very unfortunate too
because of wildlife and drinking water among other things.
These numbers vary both after the sources and after the seasons.
Warming up the ground and the oceans also use energy and lower the temperatures.
If the Pacific Ocean absorped the energy from all fossil fuels both in the past and in the future,
the temperature here would increase about 0.02o C.
The reverse process happens when the ground and the oceans are warmer than the air.
The Pacific Ocean area is 162 ∙ 106 km2.
The Atlantic Ocean area is 105 ∙ 106 km2.
The mass from surfaces to 750 m depth is 2 ∙ 1020 km3.
Heat kapacity here is 8.4 ∙ 1023 J / K.
All the fossil fuels both in the past and in the future would increase the temperature here about 0.9 o C.
Ocean heat content has increased by 1023 J.
Heat from all fossil fuels both in the past and in the future 7.42 ∙ 1022.
Why should the temperature in the oceans rise if CO2 is the cause of global warming.
In the oceans, the increasing amount of CO2 and the greenhouse effect have no influence.
The increasing amount of CO2 in the atmosphere should actually prevent radiation into the ocaens.
The only way to rise temperatures in the oceans is, if there is a difference in temperature between the water and the air.
When fossil fuels are burnt of, there is a big difference in temperature between the fire and the air during the burning process
so the air gets a lot warmer in the area near the burning.
But the difference in temperature between the air and the oceans is only the temperature of the global warming
which is only about about 1.2 o C, so the oceans don't receive much energy due to global warming.
Global warming is bigger over the Arctic area though so here the heating of the oceans could be significant.
One of the fundamental laws of physics is the law of energy conservation.
The radiation from the sun is about 10,000 times greater than global warming.
The heat from our energy production is about 5 times greater than global warming.
Melting ice cools the temperatures 3 - 4 times global warming.
These things added together, the radiation back to space is about the same as the radiation towards Earth and has always been so.
If all the fossil fuels from both the past and the future were burned off, it would increase the global temperature about 15 degrees C.
If ice should decrease the temperature with 15 degrees C, it would melt about 0,8-1 % of all ice on Earth.
If the ice melted as fast as the fossil fuels were burned off, there would be no global warming at all
but it takes a little while before the ice is melted so there would be a buffer period with global warming.
Now we have burned off about 33 % of all fossil fuels and it would have increased the temperature about 5 degrees C.
The amount of melted ice is about 0.3 % of the total amount of ice on Earth.
Global warming is about 1.1 degree C.
It looks like non-human forces have decreased the temperature estimated about 1 degree C.
How global warming will devellop is a little uncertain.
Coal is the largest amount of fossil fuels and we have the technology to stop using both coal and gas immidiately.
We still don't have the technology to replace oil completely at the moment.
Global warming after calorimetry has other properties than the theory of global warming after CO2 and greenhouse gases.
CO2 and greenhouse gases would continue to warm up the atmosphere for many years.
Fossil fuels only make heat one time when they are burned of and after that it slowly starts to get colder right away.
And when 0.8-1 % of all ice on Earth has melted, the temperature would be back to normal.
The faster we stop using coal and gas, the smaller amount of ice is going to melt.
And the more the outer forces cools down Earth, the smaller amount of ice is going to melt.
The last oil is only a minor part - under 15 % - of the total amount of fossil fuels
and we can use it for example to aviation with only minor consequenzes.
Considerations by looking at the following curves :
www.climate.gov - Global average surface temperatures 1880 - 2022
www.statista.com - The oceans are getting warmer 1880 - 2022
www.ourworldindata.org - Global primary energy consumption by sources 1800 - 2021
www.climate.gov - Recent temperature trends
www.statista.com - Historic average carbon dioxide levels 1959 - 2021
I hope, the references and credit of the sources above satisfy of laws of copyright.
Looking at the curves of 'Global average surface temperatures', 'The oceans are getting warmer' and
'Global primary energy consumption by sources' it looks like global warming follows the ocean temperatures closely and they both increase linearly
while energy consumption increases exponentially, especially aroung 1950.
Global warming and the ocean temperatures have followed each other closely since about 1910.
This was decades before our energy comsumption and use of fossil fuels could have influence on global warming.
Considering the specific heat capacity of water, the amount of water and the increased temperatures,
it must have been a huge energy supply that has caused the rising temperature of the oceans.
The total amount of fossil fuels in the lifetime of Earth could only deliver a fraction of this amount of energy.
The CO2 levels in 'Historic average carbon dioxide levels' can only increase
because CO2 stays in the atmosphere for many years.
Looking at 'Historic average carbon dioxide levels', 'Global average surface temperatures', 'The oceans are getting warmer' and
'Global primary energy consumption by sources' together at the years from 2015 - 2021,
it looks like both global warming and the rising temperatures in the oceans have stopped.
These two curves follow each other closely while our energy consumption continued rising until 2019
where it started to decrease due to the pandemic.
The amount of CO2 increased all the years in this period.
Global warming and the ocean temperatures follow each other closely
despite what happens to our energy consumption and the amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Our energy consumption and use of fossil fuels couldn't have caused the increase of ocean temperatures from 1900-1940
and yet global warming follows that increase.
Looking at the recent temperature trends, it look like the convergent boundary of the tectonic plate of Persia and Eurasia
and the plate boundary through Arctic make a significant amount of heat and tectonic plates could be the main cause of global warming.
This could explain the increased temperatures of Arctic even though there is no sunlight half of the year
and the sunlight angle is so low that greenhouse effect is impossible.
Looking at the maps of the recent temperature trends,
there might be a risk of earthquakes in the dark red areas in the long term future.
It looks like the warming of the oceans and global warming have slowed down since 2015 but that is an uncertain conclusiom.
Status at present day, March 22, 2023.
Tectonic plates through Arctic and down through Eastern Europe to the Middle East are the cause pf global warming.
It could have been because of CO2 and greenhouse effect or the energy from our energy consumption itself, which I believed,
but both have small contradictions.
The place, with the highest global warming, is Arctic.
But the sun doesn't shine half of the year here and when it shines, it is in a low angle,
so greenhouse effect is impossiple in here.
The energy from our energy consumption was more likely than CO2 and greenhouse effect
but our energy consumption wouldn't have been able to heat up the oceans the way global warming does.
It could heat up the atmosphere but the amount of water in the oceans and the specific heat capacity of water do,
that our energy consumption can't be the cause of global warming.
I believed so but our energy consumption can't be the cause of global warming either.
The movements of tectonic plates is the most likely cause of global warming
and it can contain both CO2, greenhouse effect and our energy consumption.
The tectonic plates can't be controlled by humans.
Global warming can come and it can disappear again.
It looks like the present global warming has started just after 1900 and for now, it looks like it has stopped again around 2015.
It might come again and there might come some earthquakes and volcanoes too.
Global warming today is about 1.1 degree C.
Global warming excists but the predictions of hurricanes, heavy rainfall etc never came.
It is easy to think scientifically, that higher temperatures will create this kind of weather,
and I believed so too, but the bad weather never came.
The worse storm in history in Denmark is still the storm in 1999 and that storm can be explained statistically.
High temperatures creates more biodivercity and global warming is directly good for the wild life on Earth.
In my neighbourhood, I see more wild life, foxes, deers, rabbits, birds, than ever before
and they jump around full of energy.
Biodivercity has always been higher in warmer periods of Earth
and under 1% of the total number of species on Earth through times have survived.
Humans and wild life will easily live in those the warmer periods and maybe life will be better for them.
Now, there is a psychological religion, which believes, that humans can change things with their thoughts, feelings and minds.
They have a different system, than living without changing anything psychologically.
Plastic in the oceans follows their system.
Weather change with people, not with the Earth turning around itself and having a path around the sun.
Plastic in the oceans and everywhere else, where it lays occasionally, comes and goes like the weather in that religion
and maybe it is because people not always say, think and feel good about things and other people.
But for me, looking at the climate, the life and the world, life is better than is has ever been.
Temperatures are getting a little warmer, and I like that, if the temperature increase is like today,
but the weather and the rain are surpricingly getting a little calmer.
So life in Denmark is better than it has ever been.
The only problem is crazy people.
It is a known fact that the warmer climate, the more biodivercity.
In longer terms, global warming could actually increase the biodivercity.
Many animals are stronger than we think.
Many animals go through tough periods better than most humans.
But some fractile species are in trouble.
About greenhouse effect.
Greenhouse gases don't work in the same way as a greenhouse.
Radiation can pass through a greenhouse both on the way in and on the way out.
The radiation heats up the ground and a greenhouse prevent the heat from going up in the air.
The amount of heat is the same, it is just kept in the greenhouse and not some km up in the air.
A greenhouse doesn't heat up the environment, it keeps the greenhouse warmer and the air outside a little colder.
Greenhouse gases have influence on the radiation from the sun.
Greenhouse gases shadow or stop the radiation - both from and to the earth.
Greenhouse gases bring a time aspect into the radiation from the sun.
The radiation stops when the sun sets and it disappears quite quickly back into space.
Greenhouse gases prevent the disappearance of the radiation back into space.
They make the radiation stay in the atmosphere longer time even after the sun has set.
But when the sun is up greenhouse gases also prevent radiation towards Earth.
They make the old radiation stay in the atmosphere longer time and at the same time they prevent new radiation towards Earth.
So the amounts of radiation to and from Earth are the same.
The sun emits electromagnetic radiation with many frequencies.
The spectrum and power of the electromagnetic radiation from the sun
match closely the spectrum and power of a black body with the temperature 5800 K.
The power is much less when it reaches Earth but the composition of frequencies is the same.
There are two theories about absorption and re-emission of the electromagnetic radiation from the sun.
The radiation could be absorped by Earth and then re-emitted matching a black body with a temperature about 300 K.
This way the radiation from the sun changes frequencies slightly.
The CO2 theory sticks to this theory.
The usual theory about absorption and re-emission of electromagnetic radiation says that only certain frequencies are absorped by a matter
depending on the composition of the matter.
After some time the matter re-emits the electromagnetic radiation with the same frequency as it came with.
After this theory the frequencies of the reflection and re-emission match the frequencies of the radiation from the sun.
Absorption brings a warming and time element into the radiation
because the radiation heats up the ground until it is re-emitted after some time.
Some of the radiation is not absorped but reflected.
The reflection (albedo) depends on many things, for example structure, shape and color of the surface.
The reflected radiation has the same frequencies as the incomming radiation.
Some of the radiation is absorped by the atmosphere of Earth on the way down to Earth
and some of the radiation is immediately reflected back to space by the atmosphere.
Thus the power of the radiation that hits Earth is smaller than the radiation that hits the atmosphere
and so the atmosphere has a cooling influence on Earth.
The radiation that makes it through the atmosphere and reaches Earth is reflected or absorped and then re-emitted after some time.
The radiation from Earth is absorped again by the atmosphere on the way back to space
and this absorption makes the radiation stay longer time on Earth and has a warming influence on Earth.
The concentration of greenhouse gases has influence on the absorption and the reflection from the atmosphere.
CO2 , methane and other greenhouse gases might influence the absorption and reflection by other factors than water vapor.
The use of fossil fuels has increased the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere from 280 ppm to 410 ppm.
This has increased the temperature with 1.1o C from 14o C to 15.1o C.
A tipping point could occur with higher amounts of CO2.
What would the temperature on earth then have been 500 million years ago where the amount of CO2 was over 5000 ppm?
Water vapor freezes out of the sky when the temperature is under 0o C
so the greenhouse effect can't be great in areas with temperatures below 0o C.
CO2's boiling point is -56o C so CO2 might exist in these areas.
Warming in these areas could also be caused by internal energy spread by wind, sea currents and convection.
Most of the energy production on Earth is on the northern hemisphere.
The Gulf stream is a warm sea current which ends at the north pole.
There are only cold sea currents on the south pole.
Global warming is greater on the northern hemisphere and is greatest on the north pole.
Why is global warming greatest on the north pole when the angle of the radiation from the sun and thus the reflection is least here?
And there are some months in the winter, where the sun doesn't shine on the north pole.
When the sun doesn't shine, greenhouse gases can't cause global warming there.
I am born and raised in Denmark.
I have been half time in Thailand the last about 5 years but I know the weather in Denmark.
I was in Thailand 2 years under the corona situation,
I came back around Christmas 2021 and I have been in Denmark the last 14 months.
The weather has been warmer than I remember
but the storms and the rain haven't been as strong as the CO2 theory predicts.
In fact I think the weather has been a little calmer than I remember from my life in Denmark.
And the worse storm in Denmark in history is still the storm in 1999.
Maybe the CO2 theory is wrong about its predictions of storms.
The weather news talk about storms comming but when they come, they are not as strog as I expected from the weather news.
If the weather news other places have the same approach to speak about the weather,
maybe the climate on Earth isn't as bad as they say.
I have seen statistics about storms and hurricanes other places and some places there are more storms
but they aren't must heavier than they used to be.
And the wild fires around the globe are mostly started by humans.
If humans stop starting wild fires, the climate on Earth is as good as it can be - at least in Denmark.
We have used about 50 % of all the oil on Earth so far.
We have used about 28 % of all the coal on Earth so far.
We have used about 39 % of all the gas on Earth so far.
Totally we have used about 36 % of all the fossil fuels on Earth so far measured on energy.
The global warming is about 1.1o C at the moment.
The global sea level has risen about 23 cm due to the global warming.
Half is due to water expansion when it gets warmer and the rest is due to melting ice.
Fossil fuels cause global warming but the amounts of fossil fuels are limited.
Because the amounts of fossil fuels are limited, they are no thread to mankind.
But fossil fuels cause pollution.
The pollution from fossil fuels could be compared with plastic in the oceans.
Increased temperatures cause drought, storms and heavy rainfalls and that isn't good either.
The sooner we avoid using fossil fuels the better but we still can use some of them wisely.
Coal is the largest occurence of fossil fuels and the most pollutant.
We have the technology to replace coal and we should stop using coal as soon as possible.
Gas doesn't pollute as much as coal but we also have the technology to replace gas
so we might as well stop using gas as soon as possible too.
It is more difficult with oil.
Oil is used for transportaition.
We have electric cars which function well so use of oil to cars should be replaced as soon as possible.
Larger vehicles, ships and aviation have more difficulties using electricity.
So my suggestion is that we stop use of coal and gas as soon as possible,
we still use oil but only for transportation with larger vehicles, ships and aviation.
We still develop use of electricity so one day all transportation can be done electrically.
In old times, we used wind to transportation at sea.
There is a lot of waste energy in energy production with fossil fuels.
A petrol car uses only 10 % of the energy to move.
The rest 90 % is waste energy which heats up the atmosphere too.
An electric car uses all the energy to move.
It only heats if the driver manually turns on the heat in the cabin to make it more comfortable to drive.
So our energy production heats up the envoronment a lot more than our energy consumption.
The radiation from the sun has always caused heat and energy on Earth but it disappears when the sun sets.
During a single day, the sun rises the temperatures maybe 10o C but the temperatures fall again when the sun sets.
The radiation from the sun even causes wind and waves and already here the energy is transformed from radiation to other kinds of energy.
That energy disappears too when the sun sets.
If we can use the circuits of the energy from the sun, we might be able to use energy without global warming.
Electromagnetic radiation contains energy without containing internal energy.
If we can use the energy from electromagnetic radiation without making heat, we might be able to use energy without global warming.
Electricity and magnetism are also able to do work without making heat.
The sooner we stop making heat,
the sooner the temperature will be back to normal and the more of the original Earth (ice and wildlife on Arctic among other things) is kept.
If this theory is correct...
By extrapolating, the global temperature maybe could increase by 3-4o C until all the fossil fuels are burnt off.
Then some ice - under 0.8 % of the total amount of ice on Earth - melts and brings the temperature back to normal.
The temperatures and the amount of ice on Earth have always changed so it might not be a problem at all.
If we can transform the internal energy from the fossil fuels into thermal radiation,
the global warming maybe could leave Earth through space.
Windmills transform the energy in the wind to electricity without making heat.
Solar panels tranform the radiation from the sun to electricity without making heat.
Heat pumps makes heat by making another place cooler and refridgerators do the opposite.
If they were clever, they would combine heatpumps and fridges.
Then they would have warm rooms and cold fridges and only use the energy once.
Electromagnetic radiation from the sun warms up Earth maybe 10 degrees before noon and
the heat disappears into space the same day and has always done that without making global warming.
When the radiation hits physical objects, it is transformed into heat.
Maybe we can use electromagnetic radiation to heat up houses like small microwave ovens.
If the radiation from microwave ovens hits a physical object, it would turn into heat,
and maybe that heat will disappear again like the heat from the sun disappears into space.
This theory makes a new concept : heat pollution.
It is as damaging as plastic in the oceans.
Tipping point doesn't make much sense after this theory.
The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere at present time is about 400 ppm.
The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere before the global warming was about 280 ppm.
The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere after burning up all the fossil fuels on earth estimated 800 ppm.
The global temperature at present time is about 15o C.
The global temperature before the global warming was about 14o C.
The global temperature after burning up all the fossil fuels on earth estimated 19o C.
In earlier ages the amount of CO2 and the global temperature were much higher.
The average amount of CO2 in the atmosphere the last 600 million years has been around 2000 ppm
with maximum over 6000 ppm.
The average global temperature the last 600 million years has been around 20o C
with maximum over 23o C.
No tipping point has occurred so far
and burning up all the fossil fuels on earth is still not enough to reach earlier ages temperatures and amounts of CO2.
600 million years.
Earth is about 4.5 ∙ 109 years old.
The oldest DNA from life found is about 3.8 ∙ 109 years old
but there are signs of life before that.
The dinosaurs came about 300 million years ago and they extinct 66 million years ago.
Before 600 million years ago there was much more CO2.
100o C could be a crusual point.
All the water on Earth turning into steam must have a significant influence on the climate.
The melting point of CO2 is about -57o C.
In areas with temperature under -57o C CO2 turns into solid matter.
-57o C could be a crusual point too.
We always hear that aviation is a big cause of CO2
but there is not much difference between cars and planes.
A petrol car driving one person from Copenhagen to Paris is cause of more CO2 than the same air transportation.
If there are two persons in the car, it makes about the same amount of CO2 as if they were flying.
There has to be three or more persons in the car to make less CO2 than air transportation.
Trains and electric cars cause much less CO2.
Long distance aviation causes slightly more CO2 than short distance aviation.
And if one person flies from Copenhagen to Australia and back, he maybe travels as much km in one trip as a normal car drives in a whole year.
The heat and CO2 follow each other and they follow the wind.
Most of our energy production is on the northern hemisphere.
It is also on the northern hemisphere the largest amounts of ice are melting.
I saw some maps showing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
The concentration was higher on the northern hemisphere.
That could cause that global warming was higher on the northern hemisphere
but actually global warming is the same in Australia.
The wind in the Pacific ocean normally blows warm water towards Australia and Southeast Asia.
Sometimes this changes and the warm water flows back towards South America.
This is called El Nino and it has a significant influence on the global temperature.
North Atlantic Oscillations - NAO.
There is a permanent low pressure in the Northeast Atlantic ocean over Iceland
and a permanent high pressure in the Atlantic ocean outside the coast of North Africa.
The strengths of these pressures have a significant influence on the weather and temperatures in Europe and Arctic.
About CO2 experiments.
I have seen an experiment with two glass jars, one with CO2 and one without CO2.
When they are exposed to electromagnetic radiation, the temperature gets warmer in jar with CO2.
My cosiderartion is that if there are clouds a summer day, the clouds get warmer and Earth below gets colder.
The clouds absorp the heat.
What happens to the temperature behind the two jars?
Maybe the temperature is a little colder behind the jar with CO2 because CO2 absorps some of the radiation.
What happens if something else than CO2 is put in the jar - for example rocks?
Maybe it isn't just CO2 but everything with mass that makes the temperature warmer.
Like if the temperature is taken just a few cm over the ground when the sun is shining.
Then the temperature is a little warmer because of the reflection.
The temperature close to any mass rises a little when the mass is exposed to electromagnetic radiation because of the reflection.
The heat capacity of the atmosphere :
The mass of the atmosphere : 5.2 ∙ 1018 kg
The specific heat capacity of air : 1010 J / (kg ∙ K)
The heat capacity of the atmosphere : 1010 ∙ 5.2 ∙ 1018 = 5.25 ∙ 1021 J / K
Global warming : 1.1o K
Global warming energy : 1.1 ∙ 5.25 ∙ 1021 = 5.77 ∙ 1021 J
Global warming pr year at present time : 0.1o K
Global warming pr year at present time energy : 0.1 ∙ 5.25 ∙ 1021 = 5.25 ∙ 1020 J
Energy from the sun :
The solar constant is 1367 W / m2
Area, that gets the radiation : (6.380 ∙ 106 m)2 ∙ π = 1.28 ∙ 1014 m2
The effect from the sun on Earth : 1367 ∙ 1.28 ∙ 1014 = 1.75 ∙ 1017 W
The year energy from the sun : 365 ∙ 24 ∙ 3600 ∙ 1.75 ∙ 1017 = 5.52 ∙ 1024 J
Year energy from the sun / global warming pr year ratio : 5.52 ∙ 1024 / 5.25 ∙ 1020 = 10512 times
The worlds primary energy supply (TPES) 2017 (wikipedia) : 162494 ∙ 1012 TWh ∙ 3600 s = 5.85 ∙ 1020 J
Primary energy supply / global warming pr year ratio : 5.85 ∙ 1020 / 5.25 ∙ 1020 ∙ 100 % = 111 %
The worlds electricity generation 2017 (wikipedia) : 25606 ∙ 1012 TWh ∙ 3600 s = 9.22 ∙ 1019 J
Electricity / global warming pr year ratio : 9.22 ∙ 1019 / 5.25 ∙ 1020 ∙ 100 % = 17.6 %
The resources of fossil fuels are limited.
Fossil fuel consumption through time so far measured on amounts of the fuels (2019) :
Oil : 10 ∙ 1021 J
Coal : 12.2 ∙ 1021 J
Gas : 4.12 ∙ 1021 J
Total consumption so far : (1.0 + 1.22 + 0.41) ∙ 1022 = 2.63 ∙ 1022 J
We have used 2.63 ∙ 1022 J (2019) of fossil fuels so far but our energy consumption has only been 5.85 ∙ 1020 J (2015).
There is a factor 32 difference.
As mentioned before a petrol car uses only 10 % of the energy to drive.
The rest waste energy heats up the atmosphere.
These estimations are also very loose.
We have used 2.63 ∙ 1022 J so far incl waste energy.
The temperature should have increased by 5.2o so far.
Fossil fuel resources left on Earth (2019) :
Oil : 0.99 ∙ 1022 J
Coal : 3.07 ∙ 1022 J
Gas : 7.3 ∙ 1021 J
Total resources of fossil fuels left : (0.99 + 3.07 + 0.73) ∙ 1022 = 4.79 ∙ 1022 J
Total amount of fossil fuels both in the past and in the future :
Oil : (1.0 + 0.99) ∙ 1022 = 1.99 ∙ 1022 J
Coal : (1.22 + 3.07) ∙ 1022 = 4.29 ∙ 1022 J
Gas : (0.41 + 0.73) ∙ 1022 = 1.14 ∙ 1022 J
Total amount of fossil fuels : (1.99 + 4.29 + 1.14) ∙ 1022 = 7.42 ∙ 1022 J
The temperature will increase about 14o all in all if all the fossil fuels both in the past and in the future are burnt off
and no ice is melting.
This number is higher if nuclear power and biofuels are included.
Total amount of fossil fuels both in the past and in the future : 7.42 ∙ 1022 J
Ice uses 334 kJ to melt 1 kg
Total amount of ice to recover all fossil fuels both in the past and in the future :
7.42 ∙ 1022 / (334 ∙ 103) = 2.2 ∙ 1017 kg ∼ 2.3 ∙ 105 km3
Ice totally on Earth at present time : 29 ∙ 106 km3
All the fossil fuels both in the past and in the future will melt about 0.8 % of all the ice on Earth.
Then the temperature will be back to normal.
We consume about 4 ∙ 109 tons oil pr year (2019) = 30 ∙ 109 bbl
Oil left on Earth 1646 ∙ 109 bbl
Oil runs out in 55 years
We consume about 7.7 ∙ 109 tons coal pr year (2018)
Coal left on Earth 1.136 ∙ 1012 tons
Coal runs out in 147 years
We consume about 4 ∙ 1012 m3 gas pr year (2018)
Gas left on Earth 7 ∙ 1015 ft3 = 2 ∙ 1014 m3
Gas runs out in 50 years
We consume about 4 ∙ 109 tons oil pr year (2019) = 167 ∙ 1018 J
We consume about 7.7 ∙ 109 tons coal pr year (2018) = 226 ∙ 1018 J
We consume about 4 ∙ 1012 m3 gas pr year (2018) = 154 ∙ 1018 J
Fossil fuels totally consumed pr year at the moment : 547 ∙ 1018 J
Heat capacity of the atmosphere : 5.25 ∙ 1021 J/K
The global warming increases 0.1 K pr year due to fossil fuels at the moment.