Global Warming Theory no 79





I don't know anything about global warming other than what I know about the laws of physics as a civil engineer and a mathematical physical highschool student.


What is able to cause global warming?

The radiation from the sun is about 10,000 times greater than global warming (CO2 can only cause global warming by mingling with this).
The core of Earth is more than 6000o C.
The heat from our energy production is about the same amount as global warming.
The power from our electricity generation makes about 17 % of global warming.
Radiation from Earth back to space decreases the temperature about 10,000 times global warming.
The energy from all the fossil fuels used so far is about 5 times greater than the total global warming until now.
The use of nuclear power might have unknown side effects.
Melting ice has decreased the temperature on Earth with about 3 - 4 times the total global warming.
Some people believe that their mood has influence on the weather.
Some religions believe that the end of the world is near.



Can humans change something directly with their minds?

If they can, it might also be easy to find a solution but I will leave these aspects here.



The radiation from the sun has a significant influence on the temperatures on Earth.
Changes in the radiation from the sun could overrule global warming in a glance.

Clouds prevent radiation from returning to space.
In wintertime the temperature is easily 10o C higher during nighttime when cloudy.
Clouds also prevent radiation towards Earth.
In summertime the temperature is easily 10o C lower during daytime when cloudy.

Clouds, CO2 and other greenhouse gases prevent low temperatures on Earth but they also prevent high temperatures.
They act like buffers and equalize the temperatures.


Looking at the nearest planets is a big scale experiment with greenhouse gasses.

Earth
The temperature on Earth varies between -90o C and 57o C.
The surface pressure is about 101 hPa.
The composition of the atmosphere is about 78 % N and 21 % O2.
The distance to the sun is about 150 million km.

The moon
The temperature on the moon varies between -170o C and 125o C.
There are no atmosphere, no pressure and no composition.
The distance to the sun is about 150 million km.

Mars
The temperature on Mars varies between -143o C and 35o C.
The surface pressure is about 0,6 hPa (about 0.6 % of the pressure on Earth).
The composition of the atmosphere is about 96 % CO2.
The distance to the sun is about 207 million km.

Venus
The temperature on Venus is constant 462o C.
The surface pressure is constant 9.2 MPa (about 90 times the pressure on Earth).
The composition of the atmosphere is about 96 % CO2.
The distance to the sun is about 108 million km.

Mercury
The temperature on the Mercury varies between -173o C and 427o C.
The surface pressure is less than 0.5 nPa (very, very small).
The distance to the sun varies between 46 - 70 million km.

Jupiter
Jupiter consists gas.
The temperature and the pressure change with the distance from the center of the planet.
The temperature is over 24,000o C at the core (the surface of the sun is about 6,000o C).
The temperature is about 150o C at a pressure of 2.3 MPa.
The temperature is about 40o C at a pressure of 1 MPa (10 times the pressure on Earth).
The temperature is about -110o C at a pressure of 100 hPa (same as the pressure on Earth).
The temperature is about -160o C at a pressure of 10 hPa (10 % of the pressure on Earth).
In the upper layers of the atmosphere, the temperatures start to rise again.
The temperature can be more than 700o C in the upper layers of the atmosphere.
The composition of the atmosphere is about 90 % H2 and 10 % He.
The distance to the sun is about 780 million km.

Looking at the planets confirms that greenhouse gases equalize the temperatures.
When the atmosphere is saturated with greenhouse gases, the temperatures are completely equalized day and night (constant).

There seems to be a relation between the concentration of greenhouse gases and the pressure.
The concentration of greenhouse gases and the pressure increase the closer to the planets, maybe due to gravity.

The temperatures seem to rise when the pressure and / or the concentration of greenhouse gases increase.
The state of gases also says that there is a relation between temperature, pressure and the concentration of a gas.

The proportion of CO2 on Mars is 96% but the pressure is low and the concentration of greenhouse gases is small.
The temperatures follow the pressure and the concentration of greenhouse gases and not the proportion of CO2.
CO2 on Earth has only changed the pressure and the concentration of greenhouse gases slightly (from 280 ppm to 410 ppm).
Global warming on Earth is proportional with CO2 and not the pressure and the concentration of greenhouse gases, which determine the temperature.
This indicates that CO2 isn't the cause of global warming but something proportional with CO2 is.

Venus rotates very slowly; one day last 243 Earth days.
Even though the dark side of Venus is without sunlight for over 100 days, the temperature is still the same as the sunny side of the planet.
The radiation from the sun doesn't mean anything.
CO2 and prevented reflection and re-emission of radiation back to space can't be the cause of the high temperatures on Venus.
The highest temperatures are at the surface and they falls with the distance from it.
The temperatures match the same pattern as the temperatures close to the core on Jupiter.
And the surface of Venus is extremely volcanic.
This could indicate that the high temperatures on Venus aren't caused by CO2 but heat from the core and the heat just isn't able to leave the planet.

At temperatures over 100o C, water turns into steam.
If all the oceans on Earth turn into steam this would have a significant influence on the climate.



All these observations indicate that CO2 itself isn't the cause of global warming but something proportional with CO2 is.



Many things are more or less proportional with global warming:

Worlds population, human produced energy, human made electricity, CO2, heat from burning fossil fuels, nuclear power, used biofuels, the number of thoughts and feelings in the world, the number of people in love, the amount of worries about global warming, the number of songs about rainy or sunny days caused by the singers mood, the number of people leaving their bodies because they are smoking weed, just to mention a few.



The radiation from the sun has a significant influence on the temperatures on Earth.
Changes in the radiation from the sun could overrule global warming anytime.
Some areas experience cold records despite global warming is significant.
This could indicate that the radiation from the sun actually is decreasing at the moment.
It could also be natural statistical fluctuations.
It has given a blurred picture of the temperatures on Earth the last decades.

The core of Earth has about the same temperature as the surface of the sun.
Vulcanoes, earthquakes and plate tectonics have a significant influence on the temperatures on the surface of Earth.
Changes in the heat from the core could also overrule global warming anytime.

Both changes in the radiation from the sun and heat from the core of Earth could easily overrule global warming and cause ice ages and warmer periods.
Global warming is proportional to CO2 though and none of these two are so global warming is most likely caused by humans.



Looking for something proportional with CO2 that could actually cause global warming, nuclear power and the heat from our energy production come into mind.

Animal production only produces CO2 and has no influence on global warming.



Nuclear power is messing with the basic components of matter and could maybe have some unknown consequences.
Unknown means that they are not known and I can't write anything about them.
For example we still don't know exactly what entanglement is and yet we let atoms transform to huge amounts of energy.
Waste energy also heats up the atmosphere and I don't know how much waste energy nuclear power produces.



Our total energy production so far has heated up the atmosphere with about 5 times the total global warming so far.

When I was a child, I grew up on a farm.
When pigs and chickens got offspring, the offspring was put under a heating lamp to keep them warm. The heat from those lamps could keep the close surroundings warm.
Now, when I fly at night, I can see the bright lights from the cities, we pass.
All these lights and the energy from the cities must also make a certain amount of heat - urban heat islands.

Our energy production is less than 0.1 % the energy from the sun though and the energy from the sun disappears again every day.
The only way the heat from our energy production could cause global warming is if it behaves differently than thermal radiation.

Concerning global warming there are different kinds of heat.
The two major kinds of heat are thermal radiation and combustion.
The heat from the sun is radiation and the heat from burning fossil fuels is combustion.

The two kinds of heat have different properties.
Radiation can for example pass though areas without internal energy without changing.
Combustion changes the kinetic energy of the molecules and can only exist in an atmosphere.

Thermal radiation is a kind of electromagnetic radiation. When the source stops and the radiation leaves, the temperature drops again.
Combustion is internal energy. It is related to kinetic energy in molecules. When the energy source stops, the internal energy stays in the system afterwards.


Radiation can leave into empty space.
Internal energy is kinetic energy of molecules and can only exist in an atmosphere.
The molecules have mass and the mass is attracted to Earth by gravity.
Internal energy is accumulated. Internal energy can't leave Earth unless it changes to thermal radiation first but it can disappear again in other ways for example by melting ice (changing of phase of matter).

The distinction between thermal radiation and other kinds of heat is blurred.
If a metal solid for example is warmed up, it first exchanges internal energy with the surroundings. When it is very hot, it starts to glow and exchanges energy as radiation.

There is a possibility that the heat from our energy production can't leave Earth and is accumulated and thus causes global warming even though it is only a fraction of the radiation from the sun.

If this is the case, nuclear power, biofuels and burning wood also cause global warming.
They are all proportional with CO2.

Comparing the amount of CO2 with global warming, it looks like global warming increases slightly more than the amount of CO2. This could indicate that nuclear power and biofuels contribute to global warming too.

If the temperature on Venus is caused by heat from the core, it is internal energy too and it can't leave Venus like the internal energy can't leave Earth.

The clever people should investigate the mechanisms that transform internal energy into radiation more closely because if this doesn't happen, the heat from our energy production can't leave Earth and is the cause of global warming.
It could also be a mean to remove global warming if we could turn global warming into radiation so it can leave through space.

Earth might function like a special thermos with empty space around to keep the internal energy but without a metallic cylinder to keep the radiation.



Ice cools the temperature.
Ice uses energy to melt and ice lowers the temperature.

There is way more ice on Earth than our energy consumption is able to melt.
We have used about 36 % of all fossil fuels on Earth (1-1-2020) measured on energy.
It will take under 0.8 % of all the ice on Earth to cover up for all fossil fuels both in the past and in the future.

Antarctic contains 25-30 million km3 ice (90 % of all the ice on Earth) and covers an area of 14 million km2.
Antarctic had a small increase of sea-ice until 2013.
The ice cap of Antarctic has a small decrease at the borderline and a small increase in the middle.
Totally it has lost about 5,000 km3 or about 0.02 %.

The ice cap on Greenland contains 2,5-2,9 million km3 and covers an area of about 1.7 million km2.
The ice cap on Greenland has lost about 6,000 km3 ice or about 0.2 %.

The sea ice in Arctic changes during the seasons.
In winter time it is about double size compared to summer.
The permanent ice is about 3-4 m thick while the 1 year ice is about 1 m.
The smallest summer area is about 3.5 million km2 which is about 14,000 km3 ice.
The largest winter area was about 12,000 km2 in 2010 which is about 22,500 km3 ice.
Thus maybe 6-7,000 km3 melts every year during the summer and comes back during the winter. This is about 25-30 % of the total amout of ice melted by humans through history so far.
The sea ice has decreased with about 3 million km2 which is about 3,000 km3 ice or 13-22 % depending on the season.
The sea ice on Arctic contains about 0.1 % of the total amount of ice on Earth but it is here the ice melts first.
This is unfortunate because it is also here the melting has the greatest consequences for, for example, wildlife.

The amount of ice on mountain tops and their glaciers is about 1 % of the total amount of ice on Earth.
The melting of ice here is significant too and this is very unfortunate too because of wildlife and drinking water among other things.

These numbers vary both after the sources and after the seasons.



Warming up the ground and the oceans also use energy and lower the temperatures.
If the Pacific Ocean absorped the energy from all fossil fuels both in the past and in the future, the temperature here would increase about 0.02o C.

The reverse process happens when the ground and the oceans are warmer than the air.

The Pacific Ocean area is 162 ∙ 106 km2.
The Atlantic Ocean area is 105 ∙ 106 km2.
The mass from surfaces to 750 m depth is 2 ∙ 1020 kg.
Heat kapacity here is 8.4 ∙ 1023 J / K.
All the fossil fuels both in the past and in the future would increase the surface (0-750 m) temperature in the oceans about 0.09 o C.



One of the fundamental laws of physics is the law of energy conservation.
The radiation from the sun is about 10,000 times greater than global warming.
The heat from our energy production is about 5 times greater than global warming.
Melting ice cools the temperatures 3 - 4 times global warming.
These things added together, the radiation back to space is about the same as the radiation towards Earth and has always been so.



About greenhouse effect.

Greenhouse gases have influence on the radiation from the sun.
Greenhouse gases shadow or stop the radiation - both from and to the earth.

Greenhouse gases bring a time aspect into the radiation from the sun.
The radiation stops when the sun sets and it disappears quite quickly back into space. Greenhouse gases prevent the disappearance of the radiation back into space. They make the radiation stay in the atmosphere longer time even after the sun has set.
But when the sun is up greenhouse gases also prevent radiation towards Earth. They make the old radiation stay in the atmosphere longer time and at the same time they prevent new radiation towards Earth. So the amounts of radiation to and from Earth are the same.

The sun emits electromagnetic radiation with many frequencies.
The spectrum and power of the electromagnetic radiation from the sun match closely the spectrum and power of a black body with the temperature 5800 K.
The power is much less when it reaches Earth but the composition of frequencies is the same.

There are two theories about absorption and re-emission of the electromagnetic radiation from the sun.
The radiation could be absorped by Earth and then re-emitted matching a black body with a temperature about 300 K. This way the radiation from the sun changes frequencies slightly.
The CO2 theory sticks to this theory.
The usual theory about absorption and re-emission of electromagnetic radiation says that only certain frequencies are absorped by a matter depending on the composition of the matter.
After some time the matter re-emits the electromagnetic radiation with the same frequency as it came with.
After this theory the frequencies of the reflection and re-emission match the frequencies of the radiation from the sun.

Absorption brings a warming and time element into the radiation because the radiation heats up the ground until it is re-emitted after some time.

Some of the radiation is not absorped but reflected.
The reflection (albedo) depends on many things, for example structure, shape and color of the surface.
The reflected radiation has the same frequencies as the incomming radiation.

Some of the radiation is absorped by the atmosphere of Earth on the way down to Earth and some of the radiation is immediately reflected back to space by the atmosphere.
Thus the power of the radiation that hits Earth is smaller than the radiation that hits the atmosphere and so the atmosphere has a cooling influence on Earth.
The radiation that makes it through the atmosphere and reaches Earth is reflected or absorped and then re-emitted after some time.
The radiation from Earth is absorped again by the atmosphere on the way back to space and this absorption makes the radiation stay longer time on Earth and has a warming influence on Earth.

The concentration of greenhouse gases has influence on the absorption and the reflection from the atmosphere.
CO2 , methane and other greenhouse gases might influence the absorption and reflection by other factors than water vapor.

The use of fossil fuels has increased the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere from 280 ppm to 410 ppm.
This has increased the temperature with 1.1o C from 14o C to 15.1o C.
A tipping point could occur with higher amounts of CO2.
What would the temperature on earth then have been 500 million years ago where the amount of CO2 was over 5000 ppm?

Water vapor freezes out of the sky when the temperature is under 0o C so the greenhouse effect can't be great in areas with temperatures below 0o C.
CO2's boiling point is -56o C so CO2 might exist in these areas.
Warming in these areas could also be caused by internal energy spread by wind, sea currents and convection.


Global warming is greater on the northern hemisphere and is greatest on the north pole.
Why is global warming greatest on the north pole when the angle of the radiation from the sun and thus the reflection is least here?
Most of the energy production on Earth is on the northern hemisphere.
The Gulf stream is a warm sea current which ends at the north pole. There are only cold sea currents on the south pole.



Fossil fuels.

We have used about 50 % of all the oil on Earth so far.
We have used about 28 % of all the coal on Earth so far.
We have used about 39 % of all the gas on Earth so far.
Totally we have used about 36 % of all the fossil fuels on Earth so far measured on energy.

The global warming is about 1.1o C at the moment.

The global sea level has risen about 23 cm due to the global warming.
Half is due to water expansion when it gets warmer and the rest is due to melting ice.

Fossil fuels cause global warming but the amounts of fossil fuels are limited.
Because the amounts of fossil fuels are limited, they are no thread to mankind.
But fossil fuels cause pollution. The pollution from fossil fuels could be compared with plastic in the oceans.
Increased temperatures cause drought, storms and heavy rainfalls.

The sooner we avoid using fossil fuels the better but we still can use some of them wisely.
Coal is the largest occurence of fossil fuels and the most pollutant. We have the technology to replace coal and we should stop using coal as soon as possible.
Gas doesn't pollute as much as coal but we also have the technology to replace gas so we might as well stop using gas as soon as possible too.
It is more difficult with oil. Oil is used for transportaition. We have electric cars which function well so use of oil to cars should be replaced as soon as possible. Larger vehicles, ships and aviation have more difficulties using electricity.
So my suggestion is that we stop use of coal and gas as soon as possible, we still use oil but only for transportation with larger vehicles, ships and aviation.
We still develop use of electricity so one day all transportation can be done electrically.
In old times, we used wind to transportation at sea.

There is a lot of waste energy in energy production with fossil fuels.
A petrol car uses only 10 % of the energy to move. The rest 90 % is waste energy which heats up the atmosphere too.
An electric car uses all the energy to move. It only heats if the driver manually turns on the heat in the cabin to make it more comfortable to drive.
So our energy production heats up the envoronment a lot more than our energy consumption.



The future.

The radiation from the sun has always caused heat and energy on Earth but it disappears when the sun sets.
During a single day, the sun rises the temperatures maybe 10o C but the temperatures fall again when the sun sets.
The radiation from the sun even causes wind and waves and already here the energy is transformed from radiation to other kinds of energy.
That energy disappears too when the sun sets.
If we can use the circuits of the energy from the sun, we might be able to use energy without global warming.
I hope....

Electromagnetic radiation contains energy without containing internal energy.
If we can use the energy from electromagnetic radiation without making heat, we might be able to use energy without global warming.

Electricity and magnetism are also able to do work without making heat.

The sooner we stop making heat, the sooner the temperature will be back to normal and the more of the original Earth (ice and wildlife on Arctic among other things) is kept.
If this theory is correct...

By extrapolating, the global temperature maybe could increase by 3-4o C until all the fossil fuels are burnt off.
Then some ice - under 0.8 % of the total amount of ice on Earth - melts and brings the temperature back to normal.
The temperatures and the amount of ice on Earth have always changed so it might not be a problem at all.
If we can transform the internal energy from the fossil fuels into thermal radiation, the global warming maybe could leave Earth through space.

Windmills transform the energy in the wind to electricity without making heat.
Solar panels tranform the radiation from the sun to electricity without making heat.
I hope....

Heat pumps makes heat by making another place cooler and refridgerators do the opposite.

This theory makes a new concept : heat pollution.
It is as damaging as plastic in the oceans.



Tipping point

Tipping point doesn't make much sense after this theory.

The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere at present time is about 400 ppm.
The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere before the global warming was about 280 ppm.
The amount of CO2 in the atmosphere after burning up all the fossil fuels on earth estimated 800 ppm.

The global temperature at present time is about 15o C.
The global temperature before the global warming was about 14o C.
The global temperature after burning up all the fossil fuels on earth estimated 19o C.

In earlier ages the amount of CO2 and the global temperature were much higher.
The average amount of CO2 in the atmosphere the last 600 million years has been around 2000 ppm with maximum over 6000 ppm.
The average global temperature the last 600 million years has been around 20o C with maximum over 23o C.
No tipping point has occurred so far and burning up all the fossil fuels on earth is still not enough to reach earlier ages temperatures and amounts of CO2.

600 million years.
Earth is about 4.5 ∙ 109 years old.
The oldest DNA from life found is about 3.8 ∙ 109 years old but there are signs of life before that.
The dinosaurs came about 300 million years ago and they extinct 66 million years ago.
Before 600 million years ago there was much more CO2.

100o C could be a crusual point.
All the water on Earth turning into steam must have a significant influence on the climate.

The melting point of CO2 is about -57o C.
In areas with temperature under -57o C, CO2 turns into solid matter.
-57o C could be a crusual point too.



We always hear that aviation is a big cause of CO2 but there is not much difference between cars and planes.
A petrol car driving one person from Copenhagen to Paris is cause of more CO2 than the same air transportation.
If there are two persons in the car, it makes about the same amount of CO2 as if they were flying.
There has to be three or more persons in the car to make less CO2 than air transportation.
Trains and electric cars cause much less CO2.
Long distance aviation causes slightly more CO2 than short distance aviation.
And if one person flies from Copenhagen to Australia and back, he maybe travels as much km in one trip as a normal car drives in a whole year.



Considerations.

The heat and CO2 follow each other and they follow the wind.

Most of our energy production is on the northern hemisphere.
It is also on the northern hemisphere the largest amounts of ice are melting.

I saw some maps showing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
The concentration was higher on the northern hemisphere.
That could cause that global warming was higher on the northern hemisphere but actually global warming is the same in Australia.



El Nino.
The wind in the Pacific ocean normally blows warm water towards Australia and Southeast Asia.
Sometimes this changes and the warm water flows back towards South America.
This is called El Nino and it has a significant influence on the global temperature.

North Atlantic Oscillations - NAO.
There is a permanent low pressure in the Northeast Atlantic ocean over Iceland and a permanent high pressure in the Atlantic ocean outside the coast of North Africa.
The strengths of these pressures have a significant influence on the weather and temperatures in Europe and Arctic.



Estimations.

The heat capacity of the atmosphere :
The mass of the atmosphere : 5.2 ∙ 1018 kg
The specific heat capacity of air : 1010 J / (kg ∙ K)
The heat capacity of the atmosphere : 1010 ∙ 5.2 ∙ 1018 = 5.25 ∙ 1021 J / K

Global warming : 1.1o K
Global warming energy : 1.1 ∙ 5.25 ∙ 1021 = 5.77 ∙ 1021 J
Global warming pr year at present time : 0.1o K
Global warming pr year at present time energy : 0.1 ∙ 5.25 ∙ 1021 = 5.25 ∙ 1020 J

Energy from the sun :
The solar constant is 1367 W / m2
Area, that gets the radiation : (6.380 ∙ 106 m)2 ∙ π = 1.28 ∙ 1014 m2
The effect from the sun on Earth : 1367 ∙ 1.28 ∙ 1014 = 1.75 ∙ 1017 W
The year energy from the sun : 365 ∙ 24 ∙ 3600 ∙ 1.75 ∙ 1017 = 5.52 ∙ 1024 J
Year energy from the sun / global warming pr year ratio : 5.52 ∙ 1024 / 5.25 ∙ 1020 = 10512 times

The worlds primary energy supply (TPES) 2017 (wikipedia) : 162494 ∙ 1012 TWh ∙ 3600 s = 5.85 ∙ 1020 J
Primary energy supply / global warming pr year ratio : 5.85 ∙ 1020 / 5.25 ∙ 1020 ∙ 100 % = 111 %

The worlds electricity generation 2017 (wikipedia) : 25606 ∙ 1012 TWh ∙ 3600 s = 9.22 ∙ 1019 J
Electricity / global warming pr year ratio : 9.22 ∙ 1019 / 5.25 ∙ 1020 ∙ 100 % = 17.6 %




The resources of fossil fuels are limited.

Fossil fuel consumption through time so far measured on amounts of the fuels (2019) :
Oil : 10 ∙ 1021 J
Coal : 12.2 ∙ 1021 J
Gas : 4.12 ∙ 1021 J
Total consumption so far : (1.0 + 1.22 + 0.41) ∙ 1022 = 2.63 ∙ 1022 J

We have used 2.63 ∙ 1022 J (2019) of fossil fuels so far but our energy consumption has only been 5.85 ∙ 1020 J (2015).
There is a factor 32 difference. As mentioned before a petrol car uses only 10 % of the energy to drive. The rest waste energy heats up the atmosphere.
These estimations are also very loose.

We have used 2.63 ∙ 1022 J so far incl waste energy.
The temperature should have increased by 5.2o so far.

Fossil fuel resources left on Earth (2019) :
Oil : 0.99 ∙ 1022 J
Coal : 3.07 ∙ 1022 J
Gas : 7.3 ∙ 1021 J
Total resources of fossil fuels left : (0.99 + 3.07 + 0.73) ∙ 1022 = 4.79 ∙ 1022 J

Total amount of fossil fuels both in the past and in the future :
Oil : (1.0 + 0.99) ∙ 1022 = 1.99 ∙ 1022 J
Coal : (1.22 + 3.07) ∙ 1022 = 4.29 ∙ 1022 J
Gas : (0.41 + 0.73) ∙ 1022 = 1.14 ∙ 1022 J
Total amount of fossil fuels : (1.99 + 4.29 + 1.14) ∙ 1022 = 7.42 ∙ 1022 J

The temperature will increase about 14o all in all if all the fossil fuels both in the past and in the future are burnt off and no ice is melting.
This number is higher if nuclear power and biofuels are included.



Total amount of fossil fuels both in the past and in the future : 7.42 ∙ 1022 J
Ice uses 334 kJ to melt 1 kg
Total amount of ice to recover all fossil fuels both in the past and in the future : 7.42 ∙ 1022 / (334 ∙ 103) = 2.2 ∙ 1017 kg ∼ 2.3 ∙ 105 km3
Ice totally on Earth at present time : 29 ∙ 106 km3
All the fossil fuels both in the past and in the future will melt about 0.8 % of all the ice on Earth.
Then the temperature will be back to normal.



We consume about 4 ∙ 109 tons oil pr year (2019) = 30 ∙ 109 bbl
Oil left on Earth 1646 ∙ 109 bbl
Oil runs out in 55 years

We consume about 7.7 ∙ 109 tons coal pr year (2018)
Coal left on Earth 1.136 ∙ 1012 tons
Coal runs out in 147 years

We consume about 4 ∙ 1012 m3 gas pr year (2018)
Gas left on Earth 7 ∙ 1015 ft3 = 2 ∙ 1014 m3
Gas runs out in 50 years

We consume about 4 ∙ 109 tons oil pr year (2019) = 167 ∙ 1018 J
We consume about 7.7 ∙ 109 tons coal pr year (2018) = 226 ∙ 1018 J
We consume about 4 ∙ 1012 m3 gas pr year (2018) = 154 ∙ 1018 J
Fossil fuels totally consumed pr year at the moment : 547 ∙ 1018 J
Heat capacity of the atmosphere : 5.25 ∙ 1021 J/K
The global warming increases 0.1 K pr year due to fossil fuels at the moment.